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Gonadal function in male mice disrupted by prenatal risk factors

Researchers have consistently shown that prenatal exposure to Di (2-ethyhexyl) phthalate harms the reproductive system in male mice and causes fertility defects. In a new study, scientists have shown that the combination of DEHP and a high-fat diet in pregnant mice can cause more damage to pups than each factor alone.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 15:54:34 EDT

Scientists solve decades long mystery of NLRC5 sensor function in cell death

A new study identifies NLRC5 as an innate immune sensor that plays a crucial role in PANoptotic cell death -- making it a key therapeutic target.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 15:53:41 EDT

Quantum entanglement measures Earth rotation

Researchers carried out a pioneering experiment where they measured the effect of the rotation of Earth on quantum entangled photons. The work represents a significant achievement that pushes the boundaries of rotation sensitivity in entanglement-based sensors, potentially setting the stage for further exploration at the intersection between quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:19:36 EDT

Researchers use large language models to help robots navigate

A technique can plan a trajectory for a robot using only language-based inputs. While it can't outperform vision-based approaches, it could be useful in settings that lack visual data to use for training.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:19:29 EDT

Is magnesium the sleeping potion that enables sandhoppers to survive cold winters?

A new study has shown for the first time that when sandhoppers want to enter a period of deep sleep each winter they have the means through which to increase the magnesium levels in their bodies -- in some instances more than doubling them. Essentially acting as a natural narcotic, the magnesium puts the sandhopper into a torpid state and this enforced rest means that the creatures can stay hidden in burrows up to 30cm beneath the beach surface, to some extent buffered from wintry conditions.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:19:26 EDT

New metric for blood circulation in brain to better understand dementia

Researchers have developed a new metric from measured blood circulation in our brain. This metric has implications for brain conditions, including Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:19:23 EDT

New approach to identifying altermagnetic materials

An international team has discovered a spectrum characteristic of an altermagnetic material with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:19:21 EDT

A liquid crystal source of photon pairs

Spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), as a source of entangled photons, is of great interest for quantum physics and quantum technology, but so far it could be only implemented in solids. Researchers have demonstrated, for the first time, SPDC in a liquid crystal. The results open a path to a new generation of quantum sources: efficient and electric-field tunable.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:19:16 EDT

A new weapon in the battle against antibiotic resistance: Temperature

Scientists have shown in laboratory experiments that an increase in temperature from 37 to 40 degrees Celsius increased the resistance rate for two antimicrobials, while for a third antimicrobial, the higher temperature reduced the resistance rate. If these results can be replicated in human patients, fever control could be a new way to mitigate the emergence of antibiotic resistance.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:19:13 EDT

Vitamin B6: New compound delays degradation

A low vitamin B6 level has negative effects on brain performance. A research team has now found a way to delay the degradation of the vitamin.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:19:10 EDT

Strengthener for graphene

Layers of carbon atoms in a honeycomb array are a true supermaterial: their unusually high conductivity and favorable mechanical properties could further the development of bendable electronics, new batteries, and innovative composite materials for aeronautics and space flight. However, the development of elastic and tough films remains a challenge. A research team has now introduced a method to overcome this hurdle: they linked graphene nanolayers via 'extendable' bridging structures.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:19:08 EDT

The genetic 'switches' of bone growth

In mammals, only 3% of the genome consists of coding genes which, when transcribed into proteins, ensure the biological functions of the organism and the in-utero development of future individuals. But genes do not function alone. They are controlled by other sequences in the genome, called enhancers, which, like switches, activate or deactivate them as required. A team has now identified and located 2700 enhancers -- among millions of non-coding genetic sequences -- that precisely regulate the genes responsible for bone growth. This discovery sheds light on one of the major factors influencing the size of individuals in adulthood, and explains why their failure could be the cause of certain bone malformations.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:19:05 EDT

Early Homo sapiens facilitated the establishment of the Bonelli's eagle in the Mediterranean 50,000 years ago

Scientists have unraveled the ancestral history of one of the most iconic birds of prey in the current Iberian fauna: the Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata). The study combines evidence from several disciplines, including palaeontology, genetics and ecology, to answer questions about when and why the Bonelli's eagle, a species primarily found in tropical and subtropical areas, colonized the Mediterranean Basin.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:19:00 EDT

Self-assembling and disassembling swarm molecular robots via DNA molecular controller

Researchers have succeeded in developing a DNA-based molecular controller. Crucially, this controller enables the autonomous assembly and disassembly of molecular robots, as opposed to manually directing it.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:18:57 EDT

Ultrasensitive liquid biopsy tech spots cancer earlier than standard methods

An artificial intelligence-powered method for detecting tumor DNA in blood has shown unprecedented sensitivity in predicting cancer recurrence. The new technology has the potential to improve cancer care with the very early detection of recurrence and close monitoring of tumor response during therapy.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:18:55 EDT

Successful trial for new colorectal cancer treatment

Results from a new phase 1 trial indicate that immunotherapy could be used to treat the most common form of colorectal cancer, also known as bowel cancer. Consistent responses to immunotherapy have been reported in patients with the most common type of colorectal tumors, known as MSS mCRC, with 61% of patients seeing their tumor shrink or remain stable after receiving treatment.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:18:52 EDT

Study on architecture of heart offers new understanding of human evolution

An international research team has uncovered a new insight into human evolution by comparing humans' hearts with those of other great apes.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:18:49 EDT

Tiny New Zealand bird delivers a lesson in birdsong evolution

Scientists are rethinking the evolution of vocal learning in birds. New Zealand's smallest bird, the rifleman or titipounamu, may have a rudimentary version of the talent possessed by parrots, hummingbirds and songbirds.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:18:47 EDT

Concrete-nitrogen mix may provide major health and environment benefits

Adding nitrogen to concrete could significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gases created by the construction industry.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:18:44 EDT

New approach against fatty liver

Fatty liver disease (steatotic liver disease, SLD for short) is increasingly causing failure of the liver as a vital organ. A team led by researchers has now discovered that a saturated fatty acid in blood vessels leads to the production of the signalling molecule SEMA3A, which closes the 'windows' in the blood vessels. This hinders the transport of fat from the liver to the adipose tissue. The researchers report that the windows open again and the fat in the liver is reduced when SEMA3A is inhibited.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:18:42 EDT

New and crucial role discovered for a protein in the body's immunity against cancer

Researchers have found a new function for an existing protein. They discovered that TIMP-1, a protein traditionally known to prevent damage to the body's cells and tissues, plays a critical role in the immune system's defense against cancer. The findings of the study could improve the effectiveness of current cancer immunotherapies.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:18:39 EDT

Synthetic data holds the key to determining best statewide transit investments

Synthetically generated population data can reveal the equity impacts of distributing transportation resources and funding across diverse regions, according to new research.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:18:34 EDT

Fasting primes the immune system's natural killer cells to better fight cancer, new study in mice finds

A team of researchers has shown for the first time that fasting can reprogram the metabolism of natural killer cells, helping them to survive in the harsh environment in and around tumors, while also improving their cancer-fighting ability.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:18:27 EDT

Sharks have depleted functional diversity compared to the last 66 million years

New research has found that sharks retained high levels of functional diversity for most of the last 66 million years, before steadily declining over the last 10 million years to its lowest value in the present day.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:18:24 EDT

Infectious H5N1 influenza virus in raw milk rapidly declines with heat treatment

The amount of infectious H5N1 influenza viruses in raw milk rapidly declined with heat treatment in laboratory research. However, small, detectable amounts of infectious virus remained in raw milk samples with high virus levels when treated at 72 degrees Celsius (161.6 degrees Fahrenheit) for 15 seconds -- one of the standard pasteurization methods used by the dairy industry. The authors of the study stress, however, that their findings reflect experimental conditions in a laboratory setting and are not identical to large-scale industrial pasteurization processes for raw milk.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:18:22 EDT

Novel insights into fluorescent 'dark states' illuminate ways forward for improved imaging

Scientists address decades-long problem in the field of single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer, paving the way for more accurate experiments.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:18:19 EDT

Global trial confirms benefit of antacids on bleeding prevention for ventilated patients

Critically ill patients are at risk of stress-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Now, a global trial confirms that a widely available drug does prevent upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
Fri, 14 Jun 2024 14:13:23 EDT

Low-sodium alternatives can lead to major health gains in Indonesia

Excess sodium intake and a lack of potassium are major contributing factors towards high blood pressure in Indonesia, prompting calls for low-sodium potassium-rich salt substitutes (LSSS) to be readily available to improve health and curb health costs.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 22:19:26 EDT

AI can help doctors make better decisions and save lives

A recent study found that hospitalized patients were 43 percent more likely to have their care escalated and significantly less likely to die if their care team received AI-generated alerts signaling adverse changes in their health.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 22:19:23 EDT

Does exercise in greenspace boost the individual health benefits of each?

Research suggests exercising in a park or other natural setting is more beneficial than exercising indoors.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 22:19:20 EDT

New insights into the brain regions involved in paranoia

The capacity to adjust beliefs about one's actions and their consequences in a constantly changing environment is a defining characteristic of advanced cognition. Disruptions to this ability, however, can negatively affect cognition and behavior, leading to such states of mind as paranoia, or the belief that others intend to harm us. In a new study, scientists uncover how one specific region of the brain might causally provoke these feelings of paranoia. Their novel approach -- which involved aligning data collected from monkeys with human data -- also offers a new cross-species framework through which scientists might better understand human cognition through the study of other species.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 22:19:18 EDT

Sweaty cattle may boost food security in a warming world

Climate change is making it more difficult to raise cattle -- growth and reproduction are affected by heat -- so it's critical to breed cattle better adapted to a hotter and longer summer. A new study shows it's possible to identify the genes within breeds of cattle that would lead to the sweatiest, heat-tolerant offspring.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 22:19:15 EDT

Making ferromagnets ready for ultra-fast communication and computation technology

Researchers have made a significant breakthrough in how to enable and exploit ultra-fast spin behavior in ferromagnets. The research paves the way for ultra-high frequency applications.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 22:19:10 EDT

Lab achieves major gains in perovskite solar cell stability

Researchers have developed new chemistry to achieve commercially relevant stability and performance for perovskite solar cells.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 22:19:08 EDT

New fabric makes urban heat islands more bearable

Researchers detail a new wearable fabric that can help urban residents survive the worst impacts of massive heat caused by global climate change, with applications in clothing, building and car design, and food storage. By addressing both direct solar heating and the thermal radiation emitting from pavement and buildings in urban heat islands, the material kept 2.3 degrees Celsius (4.1 degrees Fahrenheit) cooler than the broadband emitter fabric used for outdoor endurance sports and 8.9 degrees Celsius (16 degrees Fahrenheit) cooler than the commercialized silk commonly used for shirts, dresses and other summer clothing.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:12:04 EDT

A conservation market could incentivize global ocean protection

Thirty-by-thirty: protect 30% of the planet by 2030. While conservation is popular in principle, the costs of actually enacting it often stall even the most earnest efforts. Researchers have now proposed a market-based approach to achieving the 30x30 targets in the ocean.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:12:01 EDT

Can engineered plants help make baby formula as nutritious as breast milk?

New research may help close the nutrition gap between infant formula and human breast milk. The study shows how plants can be programmed to produce a diverse array of beneficial sugars found in human breast milk. The findings could lead to healthier and more affordable formula for babies, or more nutritious non-dairy plant milk for adults.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:11:58 EDT

Pair plasmas found in deep space can now be generated in the lab

Researchers have experimentally generated high-density relativistic electron-positron pair-plasma beams by producing two to three orders of magnitude more pairs than previously reported.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:11:55 EDT

Scientists preserve DNA in an amber-like polymer

With their 'T-REX' method, researchers developed a glassy, amber-like polymer that can be used for long-term storage of DNA, such as entire human genomes or digital files such as photos.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:11:53 EDT

Are mixed emotions real? New research says yes

Neuroscientists found that brains display distinct neural activity when experiencing emotions such as bitter-sweetness. The advance could help solve a longstanding scientific debate: whether 'mixed emotions' arise from unique activity in the brain, or if we're just flip-flopping back and forth between positive and negative feelings.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:11:50 EDT

The rotation of Earth's inner core has slowed, new study confirms

The new study provides unambiguous evidence that the inner core began to decrease its speed around 2010, moving slower than the Earth's surface.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:11:47 EDT

New dart launcher may be better way to inject animals with drugs

A new type of dart launcher has been developed as a safer and more cost-effective alternative to firearms or air guns to inject animals with drugs or tracking chips.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:11:44 EDT

Only one in 20 therapies tested in animals reach approval for human use

An analysis of reviews of translational biomedical research reveals that just 5% of therapies tested in animals reach regulatory approval for human use. The umbrella review summarizes other systematic reviews and provides high level evidence that while the rate of translation to human studies is 50%, there is steep drop off before final approval.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:11:41 EDT

Technologies enable 3D imaging of whole human brain hemispheres at subcellular resolution

A suite of three innovations enables high-resolution, high-throughput imaging of human brain tissue at a full range of scales and mapping connectivity of neurons at single cell resolution. To demonstrate the advance, researchers compared a brain region in an Alzheimer's and a control sample.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:11:38 EDT

Modifying genomes of tardigrades to unravel their secrets

Some species of tardigrades are highly and unusually resilient to various extreme conditions fatal to most other forms of life. The genetic basis for these exceptional abilities remains elusive. Researchers have now successfully edited genes using the CRISPR technique in a highly resilient tardigrade species previously impossible to study with genome-editing tools. The successful delivery of CRISPR to an asexual tardigrade species directly produces gene-edited offspring. The design and editing of specific tardigrade genes allow researchers to investigate which are responsible for tardigrade resilience and how such resilience can work.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:11:36 EDT

The yuck factor counteracts sustainable laundry habits

Most people today would lean towards environmentally friendly life choices, but not at the expense of being clean. When it comes to our washing habits, the fear of being perceived as dirty often wins out over the desire to act in an environmentally friendly way. And the more inclined we are to feel disgusted, the more we wash our clothes. This is shown by a unique study that examines the driving forces behind our laundering behaviours and provides new tools for how people's environmental impact can be reduced.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:11:33 EDT

The scary, yet promising world of phages, the pathogen's pathogen

Researchers are unlocking the mystery of how bacteria harness viruses to wipe out the competition. The answers could help spur the development of alternatives to antibiotics.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:11:25 EDT

Clinical decision support software can prevent 95% of medication errors in the operating room, study shows

Findings indicate that such software can dramatically improve patient safety during surgery.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:02:32 EDT

Being given a choice makes touch more pleasant, study finds

When people are asked for consent before being touched, they have a more pleasant experience of the interaction, researchers have discovered.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 14:09:18 EDT

Paleontology: New fossil fish genus discovered

Paleontologists have identified a new genus of fossil goby, revealing evolutionary secrets of a lineage that stretches back millions of years.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 14:09:15 EDT

New technique improves AI ability to map 3D space with 2D cameras

Researchers have developed a technique that allows artificial intelligence (AI) programs to better map three-dimensional spaces using two-dimensional images captured by multiple cameras. Because the technique works effectively with limited computational resources, it holds promise for improving the navigation of autonomous vehicles.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 14:09:13 EDT

Studies uncover the critical role of sleep in the formation of memories

A lack of sleep can make it extraordinarily difficult to retain information. Two new studies uncover why this is and what is happening inside the brain during sleep and sleep deprivation to help or harm the formation of memories.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 14:09:06 EDT

Short-term loneliness associated with physical health problems

Loneliness may be harmful to our daily health, according to a new study focused on understanding the subtleties of loneliness and how variations in daily feelings of loneliness effect short- and long-term well-being. The researchers said the work provides more evidence in support of the devastating impact of loneliness and isolation on physical health in the country, calling it a public health crisis.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 14:09:03 EDT

Pediatric brain tumors rely on different metabolic 'route' to fuel treatment resistance

Researchers are one step closer to understanding how pediatric DIPG tumors work.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 14:08:58 EDT

Video analysis of Iceland 2010 eruption could improve volcanic ash forecasts for aviation safety

Video footage of Iceland's 2010 Eyjafjallaj kull eruption is providing researchers with rare, up-close observations of volcanic ash clouds -- information that could help better forecast how far explosive eruptions disperse their hazardous ash particles.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 14:08:55 EDT

Neural balance in the brain is associated with brain maturity and better cognitive ability

The E/I ratio of children decreases with healthy development. Children with a lower E/I ratio were observed to have better performance than their peers in cognitive tests such as memory and intelligence, according to researchers.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 14:08:49 EDT

Parliamentary members use simpler language on hot days

Climate change has many widespread and complicated effects on the well-being of people and the planet, and a new study has now added a surprising one to the list. After analyzing the language used in seven million parliamentary speeches around the world, it shows that high temperatures lead to a significant and immediate reduction in politicians' language complexity.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 14:08:46 EDT

Study hints at tools to prevent diabetes caused by psychiatric meds

New research points to a potential approach to reducing the risk of diabetes associated with widely prescribed antipsychotic medications. The study presents early evidence in support of co-administering antipsychotic medications that block dopamine receptors in the brain alongside drugs that stop antipsychotics from blocking those same receptors in the pancreas. This approach could limit metabolic side effects, including impaired control over blood sugar, or dysglycemia.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 14:08:40 EDT

Outdoor recreation noise affects wildlife behavior and habitat use, study finds

We may go to the woods seeking peace and quiet, but are we taking our noise with us? A recent study indicates that the answer is yes -- and that this noise can trigger a fear response, as if escaping from predators. This new science calls into question whether otherwise high-quality habitat truly provides refugia for wildlife when recreationists are present and underscores the challenges land managers face in balancing outdoor recreational opportunities with wildlife conservation.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 14:08:38 EDT

Confronting trauma alleviates chronic pain among older veterans

A new study found chronic pain among older adults could be significantly reduced through a newly developed psychotherapy that works by confronting past trauma and stress-related emotions that can exacerbate pain symptoms.
Thu, 13 Jun 2024 14:08:35 EDT