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Drug-like inhibitor shows promise in preventing flu

Currently available flu medications only target the virus after it has already established an infection, but what if a drug could prevent infection in the first place? Now, scientists have designed drug-like molecules to do just that, by thwarting the first stage of influenza infection.
Tue, 21 May 2024 13:23:02 EDT

Cosmic rays illuminate the past

Researchers have for the first time been able to pin down a prehistoric settlement of early farmers in northern Greece dating back more than 7,000 years to the year. For this they combined annual growth ring measurements on wooden building elements with the sudden spike of cosmogenic radiocarbon in 5259 BC. This provides a reliable chronological reference point for many other archaeological sites in Southeast Europe.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:47:20 EDT

PFAS exposure in men linked to the health of their offspring

Researchers are reporting new findings that demonstrate a link between exposure to per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in males and health issues in their offspring.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:47:17 EDT

Complete Stellar Collapse: Unusual star system proves that stars can die quietly

University of Copenhagen astrophysicists help explain a mysterious phenomenon, whereby stars suddenly vanish from the night sky. Their study of an unusual binary star system has resulted in convincing evidence that massive stars can completely collapse and become black holes without a supernova explosion.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:47:00 EDT

Chocolate that harnesses the full potential of the cocoa fruit

Researchers have developed a type of chocolate that is more sustainable and nutritious than conventional varieties. Cocoa-fruit chocolate uses cocoa fruit jelly as a replacement for powdered sugar, reducing the sugar content and increasing the product's nutritional value. This new chocolate recipe also has the potential to diversify the income sources of small farmers.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:46:21 EDT

Night-time heat significantly increases the risk of stroke

Researchers show that nocturnal heat significantly increases the risk of stroke. The findings can contribute to the development of preventive measures: With them, the population can better protect themselves against the risks of climate change with increasingly frequent hot nights. In addition, knowledge of the consequences of hot nights can improve patient care.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:46:17 EDT

Rabies outbreaks in Costa Rica cattle linked to deforestation

Deforestation in Costa Rica raises the risk of cattle becoming infected with rabies by vampire bats, finds a new study.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:43:18 EDT

New therapeutic avenues in bone repair

Researchers have shown that a naturally occurring peptide (small protein) holds promise as a new therapeutic for osteoporosis and other disorders that feature bone loss, with distinct advantages over existing drugs.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:43:15 EDT

Researchers discover hidden step in dinosaur feather evolution

Scientists discover 'zoned development' in dinosaur skin, with zones of reptile-style scales and zones of bird-like skin with feathers. A new dinosaur skin fossil has been found to be composed of silica -- the same as glass.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:43:09 EDT

Studies reveal cell-by-cell changes caused when pig hearts and kidneys are transplanted into humans

Two new studies detail the changes seen at the single-cell level in pig organs and recipient human bodies before, during, and just after the xenotransplantation surgeries in the decedents.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:43:07 EDT

A new gene-editing system tackles complex diseases

Current methods to model or correct mutations in live cells are inefficient, especially when multiplexing -- installing multiple point mutations simultaneously across the genome. Researchers have developed new, efficient genome editing tools called multiplexed orthogonal base editors (MOBEs) to install multiple point mutations at once.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:43:04 EDT

Clarifying the cellular mechanisms underlying periodontitis with an improved animal model

Although periodontitis is an extremely prevalent disorder, it is challenging to conduct detailed and comprehensive analyses of its progression at the cellular level. Recently, researchers developed an improved periodontitis mouse model that simplifies the collection and analysis of multiple periodontal tissue types. Using this model, they clarified the role of an important signaling pathway in the inflammatory response of periodontal tissue, paving the way for better diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for periodontitis.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:43:02 EDT

Drug helps reprogram macrophage immune cells, suppress prostate and bladder tumor growth

A novel therapy that reprograms immune cells to promote antitumor activity helped shrink hard-to-treat prostate and bladder cancers in mice, according to new research.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:42:59 EDT

Green infrastructure plans need to consider historical racial inequalities

Urban greening projects should consider historical development patterns and past discriminatory practices to avoid exacerbating the unequal distribution of environmental benefits, says an urban and regional planning professor.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:42:57 EDT

Highly sensitive fiber optic gyroscope senses rotational ground motion around active volcano

Researchers have built a prototype fiber optic gyroscope for high resolution, real-time monitoring of ground rotations caused by earthquakes in the active volcanic area of Campi Flegrei in Naples, Italy. A better understanding of the seismic activity in this highly populated area could improve risk assessment and might lead to improved early warning systems.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:42:54 EDT

Warming climate intensifies flash droughts worldwide

Sudden, severe dry spells known as flash droughts are rising in intensity around the world, with a notable exception in mountainous Central Asia, where flash drought extent is shrinking, according to new research. Heat and changes to precipitation patterns caused by a warming climate are driving these trends, the study found.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:42:49 EDT

A rise in sea urchins and related damage to kelp forests impacts Oregon's gray whales and their food

A recent boom in the purple sea urchin population off the southern Oregon Coast appears to have had an indirect and negative impact on the gray whales that usually forage in the region, a new study shows.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:42:47 EDT

New research reveals that prehistoric seafloor pockmarks off the California coast are maintained by powerful sediment flows

New research on a field of pockmarks -- large, circular depressions on the seafloor -- offshore of Central California has revealed that powerful sediment flows, not methane gas eruptions, maintain these prehistoric formations.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:38:39 EDT

'I feel like I'm Alice in Wonderland': Why nightmares and 'daymares' could be early warning signs of autoimmune disease

An increase in nightmares and hallucinations -- or 'daymares' -- could herald the onset of autoimmune diseases such as lupus.
Mon, 20 May 2024 20:58:44 EDT

Electric school buses may yield significant health and climate benefits, cost savings

Replacing diesel school buses with electric school buses may yield up to $247,600 in climate and health benefits per individual bus, according to a new study. The researchers found that these benefits -- including fewer greenhouse gas emissions and reduced rates of adult mortality and childhood asthma -- and their associated savings are strongest in large cities and among fleets of old (2005 and before) buses.
Mon, 20 May 2024 15:55:46 EDT

Yoga and meditation-induced altered states of consciousness are common in the general population

A new study finds that altered states of consciousness associated with yoga, meditation, mindfulness, and other practices are common, and mostly positive or even transformative, but that for some people, they can be linked to suffering.
Mon, 20 May 2024 15:55:44 EDT

'Vigorous melting' at Antarctica's Thwaites 'Doomsday' Glacier

Glaciologists show evidence of warm ocean water intruding kilometers beneath grounded ice at Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica. The findings suggest that existing climate models are underestimating the impact of ocean and ice interactions in future sea level rise projections.
Mon, 20 May 2024 15:55:41 EDT

Mothers live longer as child mortality declines

The dramatic decline in childhood mortality during the 20th century has added a full year to women's lives, according to a new study.
Mon, 20 May 2024 15:55:37 EDT

New method to reveal what drives brain diseases

The brain is often referred to as a 'black box'-- one that's difficult to peer inside and determine what's happening at any given moment. This is part of the reason why it's difficult to understand the complex interplay of molecules, cells and genes that underlie neurological disorders. But a new CRISPR screen method has the potential to uncover new therapeutic targets and treatments for these conditions.
Mon, 20 May 2024 15:55:22 EDT

AI chips could get a sense of time

Artificial neural networks may soon be able to process time-dependent information, such as audio and video data, more efficiently.
Mon, 20 May 2024 15:55:19 EDT

Webb Telescope offers first glimpse of an exoplanet's interior

A surprisingly low amount of methane and a super-sized core hide within the cotton candy -- like planet WASP-107 b.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:40 EDT

1 in 4 parents say their teen consumes caffeine daily or nearly every day

A quarter of parents report that caffeine is basically part of their teen's daily life, according to a new national poll.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:38 EDT

Blueprints of self-assembly

Scientists have taken a step closer to replicating nature's processes of self-assembly. The study describes the synthetic construction of a tiny, self-assembled crystal known as a 'pyrochlore,' which bears unique optical properties. The advance provides a steppingstone to the eventual construction of sophisticated, self-assembling devices at the nanoscale -- roughly the size of a single virus.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:35 EDT

Extreme heat associated with children's asthma hospital visits

Extreme heat events were associated with increased asthma hospital visits, according to new research.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:30 EDT

Meerkat chit-chat

Researchers unravel the vocal interactions of meerkat groups and show they use two different types of interactions to stay in touch.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:25 EDT

Evolutionary history of extinct duck revealed

The study's findings show mergansers arrived in the New Zealand region at least seven million years ago from the Northern Hemisphere, in a separate colonisation event to that which led to the Brazilian merganser.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:20 EDT

Seeking stronger steel, systematic look at 120 combinations of alloy elements provides clues

Investigating ways to create high-performance steel, a research team used theoretical calculations on 120 combinations of 12 alloy elements, such as aluminum and titanium, with carbon and nitrogen, while also systematically clarifying the bonding mechanism.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:09 EDT

Unraveling the drought dilemma: Can reservoirs be a carbon source?

A team delves into the spatiotemporal patterns of water volume and total organic carbon concentration of agricultural reservoirs.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:06 EDT

Exercise spurs neuron growth and rewires the brain, helping mice forget traumatic and addictive memories

Researchers have found that increased neuron formation and the subsequent rewiring of neural circuits in the hippocampus through exercise or genetic manipulation helps mice forget traumatic or drug-associated memories. The findings could offer a new approach to treating mental health conditions like post-traumatic stress disorder or drug addiction.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:02 EDT

Decarbonization dynamics: New analysis unveils shifting trends in the voluntary carbon offset market

Researchers have conducted a worldwide analysis of voluntary carbon offset programs and identified trends into which types of carbon reduction technologies are selected and prioritized. Their findings provide important insights for policymakers to improve the effectiveness and credibility of the carbon offset market.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:59 EDT

Body's 'message in a bottle' delivers targeted cancer treatment

Researchers have succeeded in delivering targeted cancer treatment via small membrane bubbles that our cells use to communicate. A new study shows that the treatment reduces tumor growth and improves survival in mice.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:51 EDT

2D materials: A catalyst for future quantum technologies

Researchers have discovered that a 'single atomic defect' in a layered 2D material can hold onto quantum information for microseconds at room temperature. This underscores the broader potential of 2D materials in advancing quantum technologies.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:48 EDT

Diverse headgear in hoofed mammals evolved from common ancestor

From the small ossicones on a giraffe to the gigantic antlers of a male moose -- which can grow as wide as a car -- the headgear of ruminant hooved mammals is extremely diverse, and new research suggests that despite the physical differences, fundamental aspects of these bony adaptations likely evolved from a common ancestor.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:45 EDT

New mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance

Two newly discovered mechanisms in bacteria have been identified that can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. Changing the number of copies of resistance genes in bacteria increases antibiotic resistance, and can do so very quickly. These two mechanisms, along with a third known mechanism, can occur independently of each other, even within the same bacterial cell.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:41 EDT

Robot-phobia could exacerbate hotel, restaurant labor shortage

Using more robots to close labor gaps in the hospitality industry may backfire and cause more human workers to quit, according to a new study. The study, involving more than 620 lodging and food service employees, found that 'robot-phobia' -- specifically the fear that robots and technology will take human jobs -- increased workers' job insecurity and stress, leading to greater intentions to leave their jobs. The impact was more pronounced with employees who had real experience working with robotic technology. It also affected managers in addition to frontline workers.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:38 EDT

Scientists uncover promising treatment target for resistant brain cancer

For many patients with a deadly type of brain cancer called glioblastoma, chemotherapy resistance is a big problem. But now, researchers may have moved a step closer to a solution.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:29 EDT

Cloudy waters causes African fish to develop bigger eyes

Variations in water quality can impact the development of the visual system of one species of African fish, suggests a new study.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:23 EDT

Subduction zone splay faults compound hazards of great earthquakes

Groundbreaking research has provided new insight into the tectonic plate shifts that create some of the Earth's largest earthquakes and tsunamis.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:21 EDT

Record low Antarctic sea ice 'extremely unlikely' without climate change

Scientists have found that the record-low levels of sea ice around Antarctica in 2023 were extremely unlikely to happen without the influence of climate change. This low was a one-in-a-2000-year event without climate change and four times more likely under its effects.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:18 EDT

After hundreds of years, study confirms Bermuda now home to cownose rays

Using citizen science, photographs, on-water observations and the combination of morphological and genetic data, researchers have provided evidence that the Atlantic cownose ray has recently made a new home in Bermuda. Results show that after hundreds of years of natural history records, this is a novel migration of Atlantic cownose rays to Bermuda.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:16 EDT

Significant gaps between science of obesity and the care patients receive

More than 40% of adults in the United States live with obesity, and the percentage of people living with obesity continues to increase dramatically. While experts have learned a great deal about the causes of obesity and effective treatments for it, that information isn't always implemented in clinical settings, which may be hindering progress in reducing the rates of cardiovascular disease.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:13 EDT

Brain 'assembloids' mimic human blood-brain barrier

Major advance promises to accelerate the understanding and improved treatment of a wide range of brain disorders, including stroke, cerebral vascular disorders, brain cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease, Parkinson's disease, and other neurodegenerative conditions.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:11 EDT

Expanding on the fundamental principles of liquid movement

We are living in a world surrounded by liquid and flow, and understanding the principles that govern its movement is vital in our high-tech world. Through mathematical modeling and experimentation, researchers have expanded on Tanner's Law -- a law in fluid dynamics that describes how non-volatile liquids move across surfaces -- to cover a wider range of volatile liquids. These findings have the potential to play a role in various liquid-based industries such as electronics cooling.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:05 EDT

New AI algorithm may improve autoimmune disease prediction and therapies

A new advanced artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm more accurately model how genes associated with specific autoimmune diseases are expressed and regulated and to identify additional genes of risk. The method outperforms existing methodologies and identified 26% more novel gene and trait associations.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:21:11 EDT

Better medical record-keeping needed to fight antibiotic overuse

A lack of detailed record-keeping in clinics and emergency departments may be getting in the way of reducing the inappropriate use of antibiotics, a pair of new studies suggests. In one of the studies, about 10% of children and 35% of adults who got an antibiotic prescription during an office visit had no specific reason for the antibiotic in their record.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:51 EDT

Global life expectancy to increase by nearly 5 years by 2050 despite geopolitical, metabolic, and environmental threats

The latest findings forecast that global life expectancy will increase by 4.9 years in males and 4.2 years in females between 2022 and 2050. Increases are expected to be largest in countries where life expectancy is lower, contributing to a convergence of increased life expectancy across geographies. The trend is largely driven by public health measures that have prevented and improved survival rates from cardiovascular diseases, COVID-19, and a range of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (CMNNs).
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:49 EDT

Modern plant enzyme partners with surprisingly ancient protein

Scientists have discovered that a protein responsible for the synthesis of a key plant material evolved much earlier than suspected. This new research explored the origin and evolution of the biochemical machinery that builds lignin, a structural component of plant cell walls with significant impacts on the clean energy industry.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:41 EDT

Clinicians report success with first test of drug in a patient with life-threatening blood clotting disorder

A recombinant form of human ADAMTS13 approved for a different condition helped to save the life of a young mother with immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:39 EDT

Ion irradiation offers promise for 2D material probing

Two-dimensional materials such as graphene promise to form the basis of incredibly small and fast technologies, but this requires a detailed understanding of their electronic properties. New research demonstrates that fast electronic processes can be probed by irradiating the materials with ions first.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:36 EDT

Scientists develop new geochemical 'fingerprint' to trace contaminants in fertilizer

An international team of scientists has revealed high levels of toxic metals in global phosphate fertilizers using a isotopic variants of the element strontium as a tracer to uncover metals in soil, groundwater and possibly the food chain.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:33 EDT

Physicists propose path to faster, more flexible robots

Physicists revealed a microscopic phenomenon that could greatly improve the performance of soft devices, such as agile flexible robots or microscopic capsules for drug delivery.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:28 EDT

Repeat COVID-19 vaccinations elicit antibodies that neutralize variants, other viruses

A study has found that repeat vaccination with updated versions of the COVID-19 vaccine promotes the development of antibodies that neutralize a wide range of variants of the virus that causes COVID-19, as well as related coronaviruses.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:26 EDT

Scale matters in determining vulnerability of freshwater fish to climate changes

A team explored the influence the spatial extent of research -- the geographical coverage of data collected -- has on evaluating the sensitivity of different fish species to climate change.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:23 EDT

Sweet taste receptor affects how glucose is handled metabolically by humans

The sweet-taste receptor might be the first stop in a metabolic surveillance system for sugar. The receptor is also expressed in certain intestinal cells, where it may facilitate glucose absorption and assimilation, as part of this system. A team found that stimulation and inhibition of the sweet receptor helps regulate glucose metabolism in humans and may have implications for managing such metabolic disorders as diabetes.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:21 EDT

Scientists discover mechanism of sugar signaling in plants

A paper describes how the moving parts of a particular plant protein control whether plants can grow and make energy-intensive products such as oil -- or instead put in place a series of steps to conserve precious resources. The study focuses specifically on how the molecular machinery is regulated by a molecule that rises and falls with the level of sugar -- plants' main energy source.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:18 EDT