Boiled bubbles jump to carry more heat
The topic of water and the way it can move producing water droplets that leap -- propelled by surface tension -- and frost that jumps -- by way of electrostatics -- is a central focus of a group of scientists. Having incorporated the two phases of liquid and solid in the first two volumes of their research, their third volume investigates a third phase, with boiling water.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 17:02:57 EST
1.5°C pathways can still be achieved, combining fairness and global climate protection
Global warming can still be limited to 1.5°C by 2100 while ensuring that the poor are not hit hardest by climate policies and climate impacts. This is achieved by immediately introducing broad carbon pricing together with re-distributive policies using carbon pricing revenues and further measures to reduce energy consumption, accelerate technological transitions, and transform the land sector.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:53:02 EST
10 billion year, 50,000 light-year journey to black hole
A star near the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy originated outside of the Galaxy according to a new study. This is the first time a star of extragalactic origin has been found in the vicinity of the super massive black hole.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:52:19 EST
New theory unites Einstein's gravity with quantum mechanics
The prevailing assumption has been that Einstein's theory of gravity must be modified, or 'quantized', in order to fit within quantum theory. This is the approach of two leading candidates for a quantum theory of gravity, string theory and loop quantum gravity. But a new theory challenges that consensus and takes an alternative approach by suggesting that spacetime may be classical -- that is, not governed by quantum theory at all.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:56 EST
Quantum physics: Superconducting Nanowires Detect Single Protein Ions
An international research team has achieved a breakthrough in the detection of protein ions: Due to their high energy sensitivity, superconducting nanowire detectors achieve almost 100% quantum efficiency and exceed the detection efficiency of conventional ion detectors at low energies by a factor of up to a 1,000. In contrast to conventional detectors, they can also distinguish macromolecules by their impact energy. This allows for more sensitive detection of proteins and it provides additional information in mass spectrometry.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:47 EST
Tiny electromagnets made of ultra-thin carbon
Graphene, that is extremely thin carbon, is considered a true miracle material. An international research team has now added another facet to its diverse properties with new experiments: Experts fired short terahertz pulses at micrometer-sized discs of graphene, which briefly turned these minuscule objects into surprisingly strong magnets. This discovery may prove useful for developing future magnetic switches and storage devices.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:44 EST
Engineers tackle hard-to-map class of materials
Materials scientists mapped the structural features of a 2D ferroelectric material made of tin and selenium atoms using a new technique that can be applied to other 2D van der Waals ferroelectrics, unlocking their potential for use in electronics and other applications.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:41 EST
Scientists propose a model to predict personal learning performance for virtual reality-based safety training
In Korea, workers are being provided with virtual reality (VR)-based safety training content to mitigate the increase in occupational accidents. However, the current training evaluation methods suffer from a lack of immediate feedback from participants for personal learning performance evaluation. To address this, a team of researchers has now developed a new framework that uses real-time biometric data during VR training for improving personalized safety and preventing occupational hazards.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:31 EST
AI networks are more vulnerable to malicious attacks than previously thought
Artificial intelligence tools hold promise for applications ranging from autonomous vehicles to the interpretation of medical images. However, a new study finds these AI tools are more vulnerable than previously thought to targeted attacks that effectively force AI systems to make bad decisions.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:28 EST
'Doughnut' beams help physicists see incredibly small objects
A new laser-based technique can create images of structures too tiny to view with traditional microscopes, and without damaging them. The approach could help scientists inspect nanoelectronics, including the semiconductors in computer chips.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:23 EST
More than a meteorite: New clues about the demise of dinosaurs
What wiped out the dinosaurs? A meteorite plummeting to Earth is only part of the story, a new study suggests. Climate change triggered by massive volcanic eruptions may have ultimately set the stage for the dinosaur extinction, challenging the traditional narrative that a meteorite alone delivered the final blow to the ancient giants.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:15 EST
Dark galactic region nicknamed 'The Brick' explained with Webb telescope findings
Using the James Webb Space Telescope, astronomers spot unexpected source of carbon monoxide ice at galactic region surprisingly devoid of stars.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:12 EST
Endovascular catheter opens blocked arteries deep within lungs
A new endovascular catheter, recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is paving the way to more effective and safe treatment for acute pulmonary embolism. Already shown to be effective for reducing blockages in lung arteries, new research shows that this catheter also reduces blockages in the smaller segmental pulmonary artery branches. These branches are ultimately responsible for oxygenating the blood in the lungs. The new study, which was part of the National Institutes of Health-sponsored multicenter RESCUE clinical trial, further showed a correlation between decreased numbers of blockages in the small lung arteries and functional recovery of the right ventricle of the heart, which pumps blood into the main pulmonary artery of the lungs. Compared to other devices, the BASHIR™ catheter also had significantly lower bleeding rates, a key advance in acute pulmonary embolism treatment. The findings are described in JACC: Advances.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:10 EST
Adversity accelerates epigenetic aging in children with developmental delays, but positive parenting can reverse course
Research has shown that children who experience adversity during their early years may undergo faster biological aging. Nonetheless, a recent study reveals that positive parenting interventions can potentially shield children from this consequence, helping slow the epigenetic aging process.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:07 EST
Mathematics supporting fresh theoretical approach in oncology
Mathematics, histopathology and genomics converge to confirm that the most aggressive clear cell renal cell carcinomas display low levels of intratumour heterogeneity, i.e. they contain fewer distinct cell types. The study supports the hypothesis that it would be advisable to apply therapeutic strategies to maintain high levels of cellular heterogeneity within the tumour in order to slow down the evolution of the cancer and improve human survival.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:04 EST
Researchers decode aqueous amino acid's potential for direct air capture of CO2
Scientists have made a significant stride toward understanding a viable process for direct air capture, or DAC, of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This DAC process is in early development with the aim of achieving negative emissions, where the amount of carbon dioxide removed from the envelope of gases surrounding Earth exceeds the amount emitted.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:02 EST
Researchers have cracked the cellular code on protein folding, offering hope for new therapeutic avenues for many diseases
While we often think of diseases as caused by foreign bodies -- bacteria or viruses -- there are hundreds of diseases affecting humans that result from errors in cellular production of its proteins. A team of researchers recently leveraged the power of cutting-edge technology, including an innovative technique called glycoproteomics, to unlock the carbohydrate-based code that governs how certain classes of proteins form themselves into the complex shapes necessary to keep us healthy.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:53 EST
Earliest-known fossil mosquito suggests males were bloodsuckers too
Researchers have found the earliest-known fossil mosquito in Lower Cretaceous amber from Lebanon. What's more, the well-preserved insects are two males of the same species with piercing mouthparts, suggesting they likely sucked blood. That's noteworthy because, among modern-day mosquitoes, only females are hematophagous, meaning that they use piercing mouthparts to feed on the blood of people and other animals.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:51 EST
Himalayan glaciers react, blow cold winds down their slopes
Himalayan Glaciers fight back to preserve themselves, but for how long? An international team of researchers explains a stunning phenomenon: rising global temperatures have led Himalayan glaciers to increasingly cool the air in contact with the ice surface. The ensuing cold winds might help cool the glaciers and preserve the surrounding ecosystems. The results were found across the Himalayan range.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:48 EST
Crocodile family tree mapped: New light shed on croc evolution
Around 250 million years ago, 700 species of reptiles closely related to the modern-day crocodile roamed the earth, now new research reveals how a complex interplay between climate change, species competition and habitat can help explain why just 23 species of crocodile survive today.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:45 EST
Brains of newborns aren't underdeveloped compared to other primates
Contrary to current understanding, the brains of human newborns aren't significantly less developed compared to other primate species, but appear so because so much brain development happens after birth, finds a new study.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:42 EST
New study maps ketamine's effects on brain
A mouse study found that the drug ketamine can alter the brain's dopamine system, boosting the case for more targeted medical use.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:40 EST
Studies help explain why some prostate cancers become resistant to hormone therapy
Two new studies give insight into how cells use energy to influence the way prostate tumors survive and grow -- advancements that can help explain why some prostate cancers become resistant to hormone therapy, the most commonly used treatment for men with advanced stages of the disease.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:37 EST
Salty immune cells surrounding the brain linked to hypertension-induced dementia
A study suggests that the response of immune system cells inside the protective covering surrounding the brain may contribute to the cognitive decline that can occur in a person with chronic high blood pressure. This finding may shed light on new ways to counteract the effects of high blood pressure on cognition.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:34 EST
New technique efficiently offers insight into gene regulation
Researchers have developed a new technique called MAbID. This allows them to simultaneously study different mechanisms of gene regulation, which plays a major role in development and disease. MAbID offers new insights into how these mechanisms work together or against each other.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:32 EST
Decoding flavonoid metabolism: A closer look at plant-based diets
An international team of researchers has elucidated the process by which the major flavonoids naringenin, apigenin, and genistein are metabolized in the body. These findings are fundamental in elucidating the correlation between the metabolism of flavonoids in the body and their potential health benefits.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:48:29 EST
Vitamin D supplements do not prevent bone fractures in children
A major clinical trial has found that vitamin D supplements do not increase bone strength or prevent bone fractures in children with vitamin D deficiency. The findings challenge widely held perceptions relating to the effects of vitamin D on bone health.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 19:42:55 EST
Can preeclampsia be prevented?
Preeclampsia is a mysterious condition that occurs in about one of 10 pregnancies without any early warning signs. After 20 weeks or more of normal blood pressure during the pregnancy, patients with preeclampsia will begin to experience elevated blood pressure and may also have increased levels of protein in their urine due to hypertension reducing the filtering power of the kidneys. Prolonged hypertension due to preeclampsia can lead to organ damage and life-threatening complications for mothers and fetuses.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:32:18 EST
Pathogens use force to breach immune defenses, study finds
New research has revealed a previously unknown process through which pathogens are able to defeat a cell's defense mechanisms with physical force. The discovery represents a potential game-changer in the fight against intracellular pathogens, which cause infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and chlamydia.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:32:15 EST
Meditation training can support wellbeing in older adults
Following an 18-month meditation program can improve the wellbeing of older adults, finds a new randomized controlled trial by an international team.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:32:11 EST
Human behavior guided by fast changes in dopamine levels
A new study shows that dopamine release in the human brain plays a crucial role in encoding both reward and punishment prediction errors. This means that dopamine is involved in the process of learning from both positive and negative experiences, allowing the brain to adjust and adapt its behavior based on the outcomes of these experiences.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:32:08 EST
A color-based sensor to emulate skin's sensitivity
In a step toward more autonomous soft robots and wearable technologies, researchers have created a device that uses color to simultaneously sense multiple mechanical and temperature stimuli.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:32:02 EST
Ghostlike dusty galaxy reappears in James Webb Space Telescope image
Astronomers studying images from the James Webb Space Telescope have identified an object as a 'dusty star-forming galaxy' from nearly 1 billion years after the Big Bang. They have also discovered more than a dozen additional candidates, suggesting these galaxies might be three to 10 times as common as expected. If that conclusion is confirmed, it suggests the early universe was much dustier than previously thought.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:31:59 EST
Public gardens contribute to invasives problem
Some nonnative plants cultivated in public gardens or arboretums are escaping to become invasive in wild forests.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:31:56 EST
Aging societies more vulnerable to collapse
Societies and political structures, like the humans they serve, appear to become more fragile as they age, according to an analysis of hundreds of pre-modern societies. A new study, which holds implications for the modern world, provides the first quantitative support for the theory that the resilience of political states decreases over time.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:31:54 EST
Scientists work to bring tissue regeneration to replace root canal treatment
Scientists are testing a novel technology to treat endodontic diseases more effectively through tissue regeneration instead of root canal therapy. Because the technology promotes formation of the type of stem cells that can differentiate into dentin (tooth), bone, cartilage or fat, it has huge potential for the field of regenerative medicine beyond the tissues in the teeth. It could be used to grow bones in other parts of the body.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:34 EST
Unlocking the secret strength of marine mussels
How do you create strong, yet quick-release connections between living and non-living tissues? This is a question that continues to puzzle bioengineers who aim to create materials that bond together for advanced biomedical applications. Looking to nature for inspiration, this research zeroed in on the marine mussel byssus, a fibrous holdfast, which these bivalve mollusks use to anchor themselves in seashore habitats.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:28 EST
Researchers have taught an algorithm to 'taste'
Incorporating human tastes into artificial intelligence makes it easier for wine buyers thirsting for the right wine. Researchers have shown that AI can accurately predict individual wine preferences. The researchers expect that nourishing machines with human sensory experiences will continue to grow.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:25 EST
A patch of protection against Zika virus
A simple-to-apply, needle-free vaccine patch is being developed to protect people from the potentially deadly mosquito-borne Zika virus.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:20 EST
'Bone biographies' reveal lives of medieval England's common people -- and illuminate early benefits system
Researchers give medieval Cambridge residents the 'Richard III treatment' to reveal hard-knock lives of those in the city during its famous university's early years. Study of over 400 remains from a hospital cemetery shows spectrum of medieval poverty, and suggests that some of Cambridge University's earliest scholars ended up in penury.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:17 EST
One of the largest magnetic storms in history quantified: Aurorae covered much of the night sky from the Tropics to the Polar Regions
An international multidisciplinary team consisting of solar physicists, geophysicists, and historians from nine countries analysed observations of an extreme solar-terrestrial storm reported in historical records from February 1872. Their findings confirm that a moderate sunspot group triggered one of the largest magnetic storms ever recorded, almost covering the entire night sky with colourful aurorae in both hemispheres. If such an extreme storm occurred today, it would severely disrupt modern technological infrastructure. Their study emphasizes the importance of looking at historical records in light of modern scientific knowledge.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:14 EST
Consensus needed on when global warming reaches 1.5°C
A team of scientists has emphasized that -- surprisingly -- there is currently no formally agreed way of defining the current level of global warming relevant to the Paris Agreement.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:11 EST
Photonic chip that 'fits together like Lego' opens door to semiconductor industry
A new semiconductor architecture integrates traditional electronics with photonic, or light, components could have application in advanced radar, satellites, wireless networks and 6G telecommunications. And it provides a pathway for a local semiconductor industry.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:08 EST
Meteorites likely source of nitrogen for early Earth
Micrometeorites originating from icy celestial bodies in the outer Solar System may be responsible for transporting nitrogen to the near-Earth region in the early days of our solar system.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:06 EST
PicoRuler: Molecular rulers for high-resolution microscopy
A team presents a groundbreaking advance for the world of high-resolution fluorescence microscopy: The innovative method enables researchers for the first time to use biomolecules as molecular rulers to calibrate the latest super-resolution microscopy methods, which have a resolution of just a few nanometers.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:55 EST
Replicating the structure of bird feathers
Researchers at ETH Zurich have created a material traversed by a network of channels the size of micrometres in the same way as the microstructure of a bird's feather. To do so they have developed a new method based on the phase separation of a polymer matrix and an oily solution. The new material could be used in batteries or filtration.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:52 EST
Harvesting more solar energy with supercrystals
Hydrogen is a building block for the energy transition. To obtain it with the help of solar energy, researchers have developed new high-performance nanostructures. The material holds a world record for green hydrogen production with sunlight.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:49 EST
Control over friction, from small to large scales
Friction is hard to predict and control, especially since surfaces that come in contact are rarely perfectly flat. New experiments demonstrate that the amount of friction between two silicon surfaces, even at large scales, is determined by the forming and rupturing of microscopic chemical bonds between them. This makes it possible to control the amount of friction using surface chemistry techniques.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:47 EST
Why reading nursery rhymes and singing to babies may help them to learn language
Phonetic information -- the smallest sound elements of speech -- may not be the basis of language learning in babies as previously thought. Babies don't begin to process phonetic information reliably until seven months old -- which researchers say is too late to form the foundation of language. Instead, babies learn from rhythmic information -- the changing emphasis of syllables in speech -- which unlike phonetic information, can be heard in the womb.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:44 EST
Researchers caution diabetes patients' use of fitness video games
The authors of a new study are warning people with type-1 diabetes to use fitness video games with caution. The study has found that 'exergames' can change people's perceptions of how fatigued they are -- which is potentially harmful for those with the condition.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:41 EST
To help autonomous vehicles make moral decisions, researchers ditch the 'trolley problem'
Researchers have developed a new experiment to better understand what people view as moral and immoral decisions related to driving vehicles, with the goal of collecting data to train autonomous vehicles how to make 'good' decisions. The work is designed to capture a more realistic array of moral challenges in traffic than the widely discussed life-and-death scenario inspired by the so-called 'trolley problem.'
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:35 EST
Experimental drug combination shows promise against hard-to-treat peripheral nerve sheath tumors
Combining a pair of experimental drugs may help treat malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors with fewer harmful side effects, according to preliminary animal studies.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:32 EST
The world needs more empathy -- here is how science can harness it
In a world grappling with deep-seated division and social upheaval, empathy has become more critical than ever. But science suggests when it comes to evoking empathy, our imagination is more powerful than we previously thought. A new study reveals how the different ways to experience empathy affect our willingness to help others.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:29 EST
A new possible explanation for the Hubble tension
The universe is expanding. How fast it does so is described by the so-called Hubble-Lemaitre constant. But there is a dispute about how big this constant actually is: Different measurement methods provide contradictory values. This so-called 'Hubble tension' poses a puzzle for cosmologists. Researchers are now proposing a new solution: Using an alternative theory of gravity, the discrepancy in the measured values can be easily explained -- the Hubble tension disappears.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:26 EST
How does neonatal listeriosis impact children's health?
Maternal-fetal listeriosis is a severe disease that can lead to miscarriage, premature birth or serious neonatal infection. But what are the long-term consequences of neonatal listeriosis on the health of surviving infants? A team of scientists and physicians monitored the development of children infected with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes up to the age of 5, and compared their development with that of uninfected gestational age-matched children. The study showed that the long-term outcomes of neonatal listeriosis were mainly due to prematurity.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:24 EST
Brainstorming with a bot
Electronic nanomaterials experts have imagined how recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) could aid scientific brainstorming and ideation. To accomplish this, they have developed a chatbot with knowledge in the kinds of science he's been engaged in.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:12 EST
How pre- and postnatal B-12 vitamins improve breast milk vitamin B-12 levels, which supports infant brain development
According to a new study B-12 vitamins increase the presence of the micronutrient in mothers' breast milk, which is especially helpful in countries where it can be difficult to eat what is needed for the body to produce B-12 naturally.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:09 EST
Scientists build tiny biological robots from human cells
Scientists have created tiny moving biological robots from human tracheal cells that can encourage the growth of neurons across artificial 'wounds' in the lab. Using patients' own cells could permit growth of Anthrobots that assist healing and regeneration in the future with no nead for immune suppression.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 18:42:49 EST
Harnessing the power of a parasite that can stop pain
For the first time, scientists have begun to figure out why the disfiguring skin lesions caused by cutaneous leishmaniasis don't hurt.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 18:42:45 EST
New research explores future limits of survival and livability in extreme heat conditions
Researchers have developed a new modeling approach to assess the likelihood of human survivability and liveability during exposure to extreme heat. The new model can be applied in any climate regime and customized with populations that have potential co-morbidities. The approach integrates well-established principles from thermal physiology and human biophysics. The study's results include current and future extreme heat across very hot and dry, and very hot and humid conditions, with risks increasing over most of the world.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 18:42:25 EST