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This desert moss has the potential to grow on Mars

The desert moss Syntrichia caninervis is a promising candidate for Mars colonization thanks to its extreme ability to tolerate harsh conditions lethal to most life forms. The moss is well known for its ability to tolerate drought conditions, but researchers now report that it can also survive freezing temperatures as low as 196 C, high levels of gamma radiation, and simulated Martian conditions involving these three stressors combined. In all cases, prior dehydration seemed to help the plants cope.
Sun, 30 Jun 2024 15:30:52 EDT

Investigating newly discovered hydrothermal vents at depths of 3,000 meters off Svalbard

Hydrothermal vents can be found around the world at the junctions of drifting tectonic plates. But there are many hydrothermal fields still to be discovered. During a 2022 expedition of the MARIA S. MERIAN, the first field of hydrothermal vents on the 500-kilometer-long Knipovich Ridge off the coast of Svalbard was discovered.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:50 EDT

Tiny bright objects discovered at dawn of universe baffle scientists

A recent discovery by NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) confirmed that luminous, very red objects previously detected in the early universe upend conventional thinking about the origins and evolution of galaxies and their supermassive black holes.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:41 EDT

Soft, stretchy electrode simulates touch sensations using electrical signals

A team of researchers has developed a soft, stretchy electronic device capable of simulating the feeling of pressure or vibration when worn on the skin. This device represents a step towards creating haptic technologies that can reproduce a more varied and realistic range of touch sensations for applications such as virtual reality, medical prosthetics and wearable technology.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:35 EDT

Study reveals significant differences in RNA editing between postmortem and living human brain

Researchers have reported finding major differences between postmortem and living prefrontal cortex brain tissues as they relate to one of the most abundant RNA modifications in the brain, known as adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:29 EDT

Wireless receiver blocks interference for better mobile device performance

Researchers developed a new wireless receiver that can block strong interference signals at the earliest opportunity, which could improve the performance of a mobile device.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:27 EDT

Ecologists reconstruct the history of biodiversity in the Indo-Australian archipelago and its rise as a hotspot

The Coral Triangle, also known as the Indo-Australian Archipelago, is renowned for having the greatest marine biodiversity on our planet. Despite its importance, the detailed evolutionary history of this biodiversity hotspot has remained largely a mystery. An international research team has now shed light on this history, reconstructing how biodiversity in the region has developed over the past 40 million years.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:23 EDT

Air pollution exposure during childhood linked directly to adult bronchitis symptoms

A research team has shown that exposure to air pollution during childhood is directly associated with bronchitis symptoms as an adult. To date, many investigations have established air pollution exposure while young is consistently associated with lung problems during childhood -- and childhood lung problems are consistently associated with lung issues as an adult.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:18 EDT

Drowning in waste: Pollution hotspots in aquatic environments

A new study explores waste management systems and reveals that achieving zero waste leakage by 2030 is unlikely, potentially jeopardizing related Sustainable Development Goals. The authors emphasize the need for global cooperation, particularly across four regions, to responsibly manage waste disposal.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:12 EDT

Study reveals why AI models that analyze medical images can be biased

Researchers have found that artificial intelligence models that are most accurate at predicting race and gender from X-ray images also show the biggest 'fairness gaps' -- that is, discrepancies in their ability to accurately diagnose images of people of different races or genders.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:10 EDT

Climate change to shift tropical rains northward

Atmospheric scientists predict that unchecked carbon emissions will force tropical rains to shift northward in the coming decades, which would profoundly impact agriculture and economies near the Earth's equator. The northward rain shift would be spurred by carbon emissions that influence the formation of the intertropical convergence zones that are essentially atmospheric engines that drive about a third of the world's precipitation.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:07 EDT

Depictions of depression are often misleading

A recent study shows that people are commonly given misleading information about depression. According to the researchers, the inaccurate information makes it harder for people to understand the causes of their distress.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:02 EDT

Researchers develop fastest possible flow algorithm

Computer scientists have written a network flow algorithm that computes almost as fast as is mathematically possible. This algorithm computes the maximum traffic flow with minimum transport costs for any type of network. It thus solves a key question in theoretical computer science. The superfast algorithm also lays the foundation for efficiently computing very large and dynamically changing networks in the future.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:01 EDT

A dog's puppyhood can cause 'puppy blues' reminiscent of baby blues

Bringing a puppy home is usually a happy event, but sometimes the life change that comes with it can provoke significant negative emotions. Researchers found that almost half of dog owners experience anxiety, weariness or frustration during their dog's puppyhood stage.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:51:58 EDT

Crohn's discovery could lead to better treatments for devastating condition

The new research suggests answers to why children with relapsing Crohn's endure repeated bouts even after appearing to recover. Doctors may be able to target this underlying cause to better treat Crohn's -- or even cure it.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:51:53 EDT

Creating supranormal hearing in mice

A new study has produced supranormal hearing in mice, while also supporting a hypothesis on the cause of hidden hearing loss in people.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:51:51 EDT

Too many missing satellite galaxies found

Bringing us one step closer to solving the 'missing satellites problem,' researchers have discovered two new satellite galaxies.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:49:50 EDT

Breakthrough research makes cancer-fighting viral agent more effective

Researchers have made a significant breakthrough by discovering that the drug 4-OI can enhance the effectiveness of a cancer-fighting viral agent. This may lead to treatment of cancers that are otherwise resistant to therapies.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:49:38 EDT

New class of Mars quakes reveals daily meteorite strikes

An international team of researchers combine orbital imagery with seismological data from NASA's Mars InSight lander to derive a new impact rate for meteorite strikes on Mars. Seismology also offers a new tool for determining the density of Mars' craters and the age of different regions of a planet.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:48:57 EDT

New model could help provide expectant mothers a clearer path to safe fish consumption

Research creates a framework to better balance the nutritional benefit of fish consumption with the risk of mercury exposure to the developing brain.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:42:59 EDT

Visual explanations of machine learning models to estimate charge states in quantum dots

To form qubit states in semiconductor materials, it requires tuning for numerous parameters. But as the number of qubits increases, the amount of parameters also increases, thereby complicating this process. Now, researchers have automated this process, overcoming a significant barrier to realizing quantum computers.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 23:26:23 EDT

The future of metals research with artificial intelligence

A research team has developed an optimal artificial intelligence model to predict the yield strength of various metals, effectively addressing traditional cost and time limitations.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 23:26:21 EDT

Adults conceived by donors left behind by fertility industry

Children conceived by using egg or sperm donors have the same well-being outcomes as non-donor conceived people.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 20:57:31 EDT

Analysis suggests 2021 Texas abortion ban resulted in increase in infant deaths in state in year after law went into effect

Researchers use statistical modeling to estimate infant deaths expected if one of the country's most stringent state abortion laws had not been enacted. The study estimates that infant deaths in Texas increased more than expected in the year following the state's 2021 ban on abortion in early pregnancy, especially among infants with congenital anomalies.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:42:35 EDT

A heart of stone: Study defines the process of and defenses against cardiac valve calcification

The human body has sophisticated defenses against the deposition of calcium minerals that stiffen heart tissues, researchers at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and collaborators at UCLA Health and the University of Texas at Austin found in a new study that provides the first detailed, step-by-step documentation of how calcification progresses.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:23:00 EDT

Materials research revolutionized by a small change

Scientists develop the next generation of highly efficient memory materials with atom-level control.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:22:55 EDT

Synthetic fuels and chemicals from CO2: Ten experiments in parallel

Why do just one experiment at a time when you can do ten? Researchers have developed an automated system, which allows them to research catalysts, electrodes, and reaction conditions for CO2 electrolysis up to ten times faster. The system is complemented by an open-source software for data analysis.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:22:45 EDT

Light-controlled artificial maple seeds could monitor the environment even in hard-to-reach locations

Researchers have developed a tiny robot replicating the aerial dance of falling maple seeds. In the future, this robot could be used for real-time environmental monitoring or delivery of small samples even in inaccessible terrain such as deserts, mountains or cliffs, or the open sea. This technology could be a game changer for fields such as search-and-rescue, endangered species studies, or infrastructure monitoring.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:22:42 EDT

Projected loss of brown macroalgae and seagrasses with global environmental change

Researchers predict that climate change will drive a substantial redistribution of brown seaweeds and seagrasses at the global scale. The projected changes are alarming due to the fundamental role seaweeds and seagrasses in coastal ecosystems and provide evidence of the pervasive impacts of climate change on marine life.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:22:31 EDT

The density difference of sub-Neptunes finally deciphered

The majority of stars in our galaxy are home to planets. The most abundant are the sub-Neptunes, planets between the size of Earth and Neptune. Calculating their density poses a problem for scientists: depending on the method used to measure their mass, two populations are highlighted, the dense and the less dense. Is this due to an observational bias or the physical existence of two distinct populations of sub-Neptunes? Recent work argues for the latter.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:22:26 EDT

No more stressing out over structural formulas

Structural formulas are a source of dread for many students, but they're an essential tool in biology lessons. A study has now shown that the stress levels of students working with chemical formulas are significantly reduced if they are given simple tips on how to deal with these formulas.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:22:24 EDT

New materials: Synthetic pathway for promising nitride compounds discovered

Chemists have successfully synthesized Ruddlesden-Popper nitrides for the first time, opening the door to new materials with unique properties.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:22:16 EDT

Antarctic ice shelves hold twice as much meltwater as previously thought

Slush -- water-soaked snow -- makes up more than half of all meltwater on the Antarctic ice shelves during the height of summer, yet is poorly accounted for in regional climate models. The findings could have profound implications for ice shelf stability and sea level rise.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:22:11 EDT

First specific PET scan for TB could enable more effective treatment

A more accurate way to scan for tuberculosis (TB) has been developed, using positron emission tomography (PET). The team has developed a new radiotracer, which is taken up by live TB bacteria in the body. Radiotracers are radioactive compounds which give off radiation that can be detected by scanners and turned into a 3D image. The new radiotracer, called FDT, enables PET scans to be used for the first time to accurately pinpoint when and where the disease is still active in a patient's lungs.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:22:01 EDT

Ammonites' fate sealed by meteor strike that wiped out dinosaurs

Ammonites were not in decline before their extinction, scientists have found.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:56 EDT

New mathematical model sheds light on the absence of breastfeeding in male mammals

Mathematicians ave put forward a hypothesis which suggests that the reason male mammals don't breastfeed might be driven by the rich community of microbes that lives in breast milk and which plays an important part in establishing the gut microbiome of the infant.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:54 EDT

Long-standing marine mystery solved: How algae get nitrogen to grow

Scientists shed light on an unexpected partnership: A marine diatom and a bacterium that can account for a large share of nitrogen fixation in vast regions of the ocean. This symbiosis likely plays a key role for global marine nitrogen fixation and productivity, and thus uptake of carbon dioxide. The newly-discovered bacterial symbiont is closely related to the nitrogen-fixing Rhizobia which live in partnership with many crop plants and may also open up new avenues for engineering nitrogen-fixing plants.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:48 EDT

Important step forward in stem cell therapy for rare bowel disease

A new study has demonstrated the potential of stem cell therapy to treat those with Hirschsprung disease.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:41 EDT

Groundbreaking discovery: Zinc can make crop yields more climate-resilient

Climate change, drought, increased temperature and other stressors challenge agricultural sustainability. Researchers have now made an unexpected discovery: zinc plays a pivotal role in the plant response to abiotic stress. This groundbreaking discovery not only sheds light on the intricate mechanisms of plant growth but also holds promise for revolutionizing crop resilience, especially in legume-based agriculture.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:39 EDT

Just 4% of teen academy prospects play elite soccer (football)

Just four per cent of talented teen academy prospects make it to the top tier of professional football, a new study has shown. A sample of nearly 200 players, aged between 13-18, also revealed only six per cent of the budding ballers even go on to play in lower leagues.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:37 EDT

Optimum protection against diabetes: Weight loss plus remission of prediabetes

People with prediabetes are advised to reduce their weight in order to prevent manifest diabetes. Researchers have now been able to show that people achieve the best diabetes protection when they reduce their weight and at the same time normalize blood sugar regulation.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:35 EDT

New deep-learning model outperforms Google AI system in predicting peptide structures

Researchers have developed a deep-learning model, called PepFlow, that can predict all possible shapes of peptides -- chains of amino acids that are shorter than proteins, but perform similar biological functions. Peptides are known to be highly flexible, taking on a wide range of folding patterns, and are thus involved in many biological processes of interest to researchers in the development of therapeutics.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:25 EDT

Emotional overeating fed by temperament, caregivers' reactions to children's emotions

A research team tracked children from infancy through age 3 to explore the roots of emotional overeating. Parents/caregivers were surveyed about the children's temperaments and whether they consumed food to manage their emotions. The team found that while emotional overeating was associated with temperament and individuals' capacity to manage their emotions, parents' and caregivers' reactions to the children's negative emotions had a significant impact on whether they developed emotional overeating.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:21 EDT

Aromatic compounds: A ring made up solely of metal atoms

The term aromaticity is a basic, long-standing concept in chemistry that is well established for ring-shaped carbon compounds. Aromatic rings consisting solely of metal atoms were, however, heretofore unknown. A research team recently succeeded in isolating such a metal ring and describing it in full.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:14 EDT

Cheaper, more convenient method to detect asbestos

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has long been the gold standard for detecting asbestos fibers in air samples drawn at construction sites. But researchers have found that a cheaper, less labor-intensive method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), can work just as well in most cases. The new finding could help reduce the estimated $3 billion spent on asbestos remediation in this country every year.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:07 EDT

Last surviving woolly mammoths were inbred but not doomed to extinction

The last population of woolly mammoths was isolated on Wrangel Island off the coast of Siberia 10,000 years ago, when sea levels rose and cut the mountainous island off from the mainland. A new genomic analysis reveals that the isolated mammoths, who lived on the island for the subsequent 6,000 years, originated from at most 8 individuals but grew to 200--300 individuals within 20 generations. The researchers report that the Wrangel Island mammoths' genomes showed signs of inbreeding and low genetic diversity but not to the extent that it can explain their ultimate (and mysterious) extinction.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:01 EDT

Lie-detection AI could provoke people into making careless accusations, researchers warn

Although people lie a lot, they typically refrain from accusing others of lying because of social norms around making false accusations and being polite. But artificial intelligence (AI) could soon shake up the rules. Researchers demonstrate that people are much more likely to accuse others of lying when an AI makes an accusation. The finding provided insights into the social implications of using AI systems for lie detection, which could inform policymakers when implementing similar technologies.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:59 EDT

The mechanism behind melanoma resistance to treatment

In many cases of malignant melanoma, the effect of targeted treatment is lost over time. A research team has now discovered that a factor secreted by tumor cells is responsible for the resistance. These findings could pave the way for more effective therapies.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:55 EDT

Common plastics could passively cool and heat buildings with the seasons

By restricting radiant heat flows between buildings and their environment to specific wavelengths, coatings engineered from common materials can achieve energy savings and thermal comfort that goes beyond what traditional building envelopes can achieve.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:53 EDT

Relationship between heart disease and spontaneous loss of Y chromosome

Researchers found that men with a higher proportion of blood cells missing Y chromosomes have a higher mortality rate from a common cause of heart disease called transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA), informing future treatment for patients with ATTR-CA.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:46 EDT

Prenatal exposure to ethylene oxide associated with lower birth weight and head circumference in newborns

A study provides new evidence on the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ethylene oxide (EO) on fetal development. The results show that increased EO exposure in utero is associated with a reduction in birth weight and head circumference in newborns.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:44 EDT

Pacific cod can't rely on coastal safe havens for protection during marine heat waves

During recent periods of unusually warm water in the Gulf of Alaska, young Pacific cod in near shore safe havens where they typically spend their adolescence did not experience the protective effects those areas typically provide, a new study found.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:42 EDT

Bird flu stays stable on milking equipment for at least one hour

H5N1 virus in unpasteurized milk is stable on metal and rubber components of commercial milking equipment for at least one hour, increasing its potential to infect people and other animals.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:39 EDT

Printed sensors in soil could help farmers improve crop yields and save money

University of Wisconsin--Madison engineers have developed low-cost sensors that allow for real-time, continuous monitoring of nitrate in soil types that are common in Wisconsin. These printed electrochemical sensors could enable farmers to make better informed nutrient management decisions and reap economic benefits.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:36 EDT

Neighborhood opportunities influence infant development and cognition

Researchers find that growing up in neighborhoods with more educational and socioeconomic opportunities has a positive impact on infants' brain activity.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:34 EDT

New twists on tornadoes: Earth scientist studies why U.S. has so many tornadoes

Across the Midwest during the warmer months, studying the sky for signs of storms and tornadoes becomes one of the most popular pastimes. Working at the intersection of climate science and meteorology and using modeling, scientists are looking at the big picture of what causes severe storms and tornadoes -- and what dictates where they occur.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:31 EDT

Researchers find elementary age children experience more concussions during activities unrelated to sports

Researchers found that young children between the ages of 5 and 12 were more likely to experience a concussion from recreation and other non-sport activities, yet those injuries were not seen by specialists until days later compared with sports-related concussions in the same age group.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:29 EDT

Urban green and blue spaces are linked to less coronary artery calcification

Being near and having more exposure to urban green space and blue (water) space is linked to lower odds of having coronary artery calcification in middle age, which is an early marker of cardiovascular disease. The associations were more pronounced among Black individuals and those living in neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status, with the strongest effects observed in Black individuals in economically deprived neighborhoods.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:27 EDT

Wolves reintroduced to Isle Royale temporarily affect other carnivores, humans have influence as well

In a rare opportunity to study carnivores before and after wolves were reintroduced to their ranges, researchers found that the effects of wolves on Isle Royale have been only temporary. And even in the least-visited national park, humans had a more significant impact on carnivores' lives.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:25 EDT

Master autoimmune regulator gets by with a little help from its friends

Researchers determined the Foxp3 protein is actually a cofactor, hijacking DNA-binding proteins responding to the immunological environment of the T cell. Based on the type of response needed, different factors are expressed, which is the driving force for Foxp3 to suppress an immune response.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:23 EDT

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