Down goes antimatter! Gravity's effect on matter's elusive twin is revealed
For the first time, in a unique laboratory experiment at CERN, researchers have observed individual atoms of antihydrogen fall under the effects of gravity. In confirming antimatter and regular matter are gravitationally attracted, the finding rules out gravitational repulsion as the reason why antimatter is largely missing from the observable universe.
Wed, 27 Sep 2023 15:48:38 EDT
How to save plants from climate change? Just ask them
Climate change and a range of human-caused factors have disrupted the habitats of many California native trees and other plant species. Efforts to protect or relocate plant species would be bolstered by understanding which habitats are best suited for each species. A new study identified a range of characteristics from more than 100 types of plants that can be analyzed to determine each species' preferred temperature and rainfall amount.
Wed, 27 Sep 2023 00:34:48 EDT
A close-up of biological nanomachines: Researchers take a deep look at peroxisomal processes
The cell organelles known as 'peroxisomes' dispose toxic substances and fats in the human body, among other things, and, in doing so, they prevent serious illnesses. The 'Pex' group of proteins (peroxisomes biogenesis factors) keep these 'detox units' functioning properly -- and now researchers have shown, at the atomic level, how these highly complex processes proceed.
Wed, 27 Sep 2023 00:34:32 EDT
Investigating the role of greener plastics for Japan's carbon neutral goals
Researchers have investigated the potential in Japan for more sustainable plastic recycling and the market for bioplastics.
Wed, 27 Sep 2023 00:33:27 EDT
Unleashing the power of AI to track animal behavior
Scientists have created a non-invasive movement tracking method called GlowTrack that uses fluorescent dye markers to train artificial intelligence to capture movement, from a single mouse digit to the human hand. GlowTrack has applications spanning biology, robotics, medicine, and beyond.
Wed, 27 Sep 2023 00:32:23 EDT
New insect genus discovered in one of the most biodiverse rain forest regions in the world
The Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve in Peru has often been described as the most biodiverse rainforest in the world. For example, in recent decades, scientist have discovered several new bird species from the region. Researchers from the University of Turku in Finland have studied the insect biodiversity in Allpahuayo-Mishana for over 20 years. In their latest study, the scientist described a new wasp genus, Capitojoppa, to science.
Wed, 27 Sep 2023 00:32:03 EDT
Decreasing biodiversity may promote spread of viruses
How are environmental changes, loss of biodiversity, and the spread of pathogens connected? The answer is a puzzle. Researchers have now described one piece of that puzzle, showing that the destruction of tropical rainforests harms the diversity of mosquito species. At the same time, more resilient species of mosquitoes become more prevalent -- which also means the viruses they carry are more abundant. If there are many individuals of a given species, those viruses can spread quickly.
Wed, 27 Sep 2023 00:31:51 EDT
Exploring the effect of water on seismic wave attenuation in the upper mantle
The mechanism facilitating the smooth movement of the oceanic lithosphere over the underlying asthenosphere (upper mantle) remains poorly understood. Recently, researchers from Japan investigated the effect of water on the seismic properties of olivine rocks, finding that water retention in the asthenosphere can induce sharp drops in shear wave velocity. This also explained other seismic changes observed at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. These findings provide invaluable insights into the diverse seismic activities on Earth.
Wed, 27 Sep 2023 00:31:01 EDT
One-hour training is all you need to control a third robotic arm, study finds
A new study has found that people can learn to use supernumerary robotic arms as effectively as working with a partner in just one hour of training.
Wed, 27 Sep 2023 00:30:48 EDT
Increasing steps by 3,000 per day can lower blood pressure in older adults, study finds
An estimated 80 percent of older adults in the U.S. have high blood pressure. Maintaining healthy blood pressure can protect against serious conditions like heart failure, heart attacks, and strokes. A new study found that adding a relatively minimal amount of movement, about 3,000 steps per day, can significantly reduce high blood pressure in older adults.
Wed, 27 Sep 2023 00:30:32 EDT
Study sheds new light on strange lava worlds
In a new study, scientists have shown that sweeping molten oceans have a large influence on the observed properties of hot rocky Super-Earths, such as their size and evolutionary path.
Wed, 27 Sep 2023 00:25:06 EDT
Scientists reveal what fuels wildfires in Sierra Nevada Mountains
Wildfires in California, exacerbated by human-driven climate change, are getting more severe. To better manage them, there's a growing need to know exactly what fuels the blazes after they ignite. Scientists now report that one of the chief fuels of wildfires in California's Sierra Nevada mountains is the decades-old remains of large trees.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 19:05:25 EDT
New insights into the atmosphere and star of an exoplanet
A new study of the intriguing TRAPPIST-1 exoplanetary system has demonstrated the complex interaction between the activity of the system's star and its planetary features.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 19:05:22 EDT
Caribbean parrots thought to be endemic are actually relicts of millennial-scale extinction
For the first time, researchers have extracted ancient DNA from Caribbean parrot fossils and archaeological specimens, showing that species thought to be endemic to particular islands were historically more widespread and diverse.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 15:38:25 EDT
New method can improve assessing genetic risks for non-white populations
A team led by researchers has developed a new algorithm for genetic risk-scoring for major diseases across diverse ancestry populations that holds promise for reducing health care disparities.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 15:38:17 EDT
Wearable devices show who may need more help managing diabetes
A new study suggests that how well people with diabetes manage their blood sugar depends on their experience with the condition and their overall success in controlling their glucose levels, as well as on the season and time of day. The findings could help physicians identify those patients who could benefit from more guidance in regulating their blood sugar, particularly at certain times of year.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 15:38:15 EDT
Light and sound waves reveal negative pressure
Negative pressure is a rare and challenging-to-detect phenomenon in physics. Using liquid-filled optical fibers and sound waves, researchers have now discovered a new method to measure it. In collaboration with the Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technologies in
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 15:38:12 EDT
New qubit circuit enables quantum operations with higher accuracy
Researchers have developed a novel superconducting qubit architecture that can perform operations between qubits with much higher accuracy than scientists have yet been able to achieve. This architecture, which utilizes a relatively new type of superconducting qubit called fluxonium, is scalable and could be used to someday build a large-scale quantum computer.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 15:38:07 EDT
How a small strand of RNA is key to fighting cancer
A team of researchers has shown that a single, small strand of microRNA, or miRNA, known as let-7, governs the ability of T-cells to recognize and remember tumor cells. This cellular memory is the basis for how vaccines work. Boosting cellular memory to recognize tumors could help improve cancer therapies. The research suggests a new strategy for the next generation of cancer-fighting immunotherapies.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 15:38:05 EDT
Glaciers becoming smaller and disappearing
Researchers show that some glaciers have disappeared entirely, some no longer show movement, some are too small to meet the 0.01 square kilometer minimum and some are actually rock glaciers -- rocky debris with ice in the pore spaces.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 15:38:02 EDT
Researchers develop new way to target cancer cells
Researchers have identified a new method of activating specific molecules to target cancer cells while leaving healthy cells unharmed. Using click-release proteolysis targeting chimeras, researchers have developed a new method of activating specific molecules to target only cancer cells.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 15:37:57 EDT
Researchers tackle immune rejection of biomedical implants
To learn more about what causes the body to reject biomedical implants, a team has identified a protein that appears to help drive this response and hopes their discoveries will improve the design and safety of biomedical implants.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 15:37:54 EDT
Could this new hydrogel make HIV therapy more convenient?
The gel releases a steady dose of the anti-HIV drug lamivudine over six weeks, suggesting people living with HIV could have new therapy that doesn't require a daily pill regimen to prevent AIDS.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 15:37:49 EDT
Family planning and the fear of missing out
Among regretful parents, fear of missing out is a key motivator for having children.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 15:37:47 EDT
Did life exist on Mars? Other planets? With AI's help, we may know soon
Scientists have discovered a simple and reliable test for signs of past or present life on other planets -- 'the holy grail of astrobiology.' Researchers report that, with 90% accuracy, their artificial intelligence-based method distinguished modern and ancient biological samples from those of abiotic origin.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 15:37:44 EDT
Naming and shaming can be effective to get countries to act on climate
Enforcement is one of the biggest challenges to international cooperation on mitigating climate change in the Paris Agreement. The agreement has no formal enforcement mechanism; instead, it is designed to be transparent so countries that fail to meet their obligations will be named and thus shamed into changing behavior. A new study shows that this naming-and-shaming mechanism can be an effective incentive for many countries to uphold their pledges to reduce emissions.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 15:37:39 EDT
Theories about the natural world may need to change to reflect human impact
New research has validated at scale, one of the theories that has underpinned ecology for over half a century. In doing so, the findings raise further questions about whether models should be revised to capture human impacts on natural systems.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:54 EDT
New research reveals extreme heat likely to wipe out humans and mammals in the distant future
A new study shows unprecedented heat is likely to lead to the next mass extinction, akin to when the dinosaurs died out, eliminating nearly all mammals in some 250 million years time.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:50 EDT
Study finds immune cells in older adults resemble those in newborns and children, but fall short in virus detection
New research shows that the immune cells, known as 'killer T cells,' in older adults resemble those in newborns and children, but have difficulty identifying infected cells. This discovery opens the door to tailored, age-specific vaccines and therapies.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:47 EDT
Waterfleas hold key to cleaner environment and better human health
Tiny waterfleas could play a pivotal role in removing persistent chemical pollutants from wastewater -- making it safe to use in factories, farms and homes, a new study reveals.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:38 EDT
Marker for brain inflammation finally decoded
Inflammation is the sign that our body is defending itself against an aggression. But when this response escalates, for example in the brain, it can lead to serious neurological or psychiatric diseases. A team investigated a marker protein targeted by medical imaging to visualize cerebral inflammation, but whose interpretation was still uncertain. The team reveals that a large quantity of this protein goes hand in hand with a large quantity of inflammatory cells, but its presence is not a sign of their overactivation. These results pave the way for optimal observation of neuroinflammatory processes and a re-reading of previous studies on the subject.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:34 EDT
Hidden supermassive black holes reveal their secrets through radio signals
Astronomers have found a striking link between the amount of dust surrounding a supermassive black hole and the strength of the radio emission produced in extremely bright galaxies.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:31 EDT
Genetic code of rare kidney cancer cracked
New study reveals drivers of rare cancer and provides a possible alternative solution to surgery.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:29 EDT
Crystallization as the driving force
Scientists have successfully developed nanomaterials using a so-called bottom-up approach. They exploit the fact that crystals often grow in a specific direction during crystallization. These resulting nanostructures, which appear as 'worm-like and decorated rods,' could be used in various technological applications.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:22 EDT
Brain signals for good memory performance revealed
People differ significantly in their memory performance. Researchers have now discovered that certain brain signals are related to these differences.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:17 EDT
Machine learning unravels mysteries of atomic shapes
New research has used machine learning to find the properties of atomic pieces of geometry, in pioneering work that could drive the development of new results in mathematics.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:14 EDT
Copper-based catalysts efficiently turn carbon dioxide into methane
Copper-based catalysts developed by materials scientists help speed up the rate of carbon dioxide-to-methane conversion.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:12 EDT
Study shows birds that have evolved greater complexity are less biodiverse
Research shows that birds with more complex skeletons are more specialized and so are less species rich.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:09 EDT
Rivers contain hidden sinks and sources of microplastics
New research represents the first combined analysis of microplastics in water, sediment and air around a major river system. It found significant quantities of microplastics trapped in riverbed sediments, and also found they were being transported through the air and the flow of the river.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:04 EDT
By air, rain and land: How microbes return after a wildfire
Ecological disturbances like wildfires disrupt microbial communities. Researchers found that dispersal played a pivotal role in re-establishing surface-level communities.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:48:01 EDT
How weather patterns will change in the future
In a warming Pacific Northwest, summers are getting hotter and winters less cold, but the atmospheric patterns that influence the weather aren't necessarily expected to become stronger or more frequent by the end of the century, according to a new study.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:47:58 EDT
Drug discovery on an unprecedented scale
Boosting virtual screening with machine learning allowed for a 10-fold time reduction in the processing of 1.56 billion drug-like molecules. Researchers teamed up with industry and supercomputers to carry out one of the world's largest virtual drug screens.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:47:56 EDT
How can the use of plastics in agriculture become more sustainable?
It is impossible to imagine modern agriculture without plastics. 12 million tons are used every year. But what about the consequences for the environment? An international team of authors addresses this question in a recent study. The research shows the benefits and risks of using plastics in agriculture, and identifies solutions that ensure their sustainable use.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:47:53 EDT
New study definitively confirms Gulf Stream weakening, understanding the changes could help predict future trends in extreme events
The Gulf Stream transport of water through the Florida Strait has slowed by 4% over the past four decades, with a 99% certainty that this weakening is more than expected from random chance, according to a new study.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:47:48 EDT
Ocean acidification makes ecologically important seaweed species fragile
Ocean acidification will likely almost triple by the end of the century -- a drastic environmental change that could impact important marine species like fleshy seaweeds, algae that grow vertically and promote biodiversity in more than a third of the world's coastline. To get a better idea of how seaweeds might fare in a rapidly acidifying ocean, a team of marine scientists subjected a common fleshy seaweed species to the acidification levels expected by the end of the century. They report that increased acidification impacted the seaweed's chemical balance, made both its structure and its tissues weaker, and reduced its overall chances of survival.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:47:45 EDT
Nanopore sequencing and DNA barcoding method gives hope of personalized medicine
With the ability to map dozens of biomarkers at once, a new method could transform testing for conditions including heart disease and cancer.
Mon, 25 Sep 2023 12:47:42 EDT
Discovery in mosquitoes could lead to new strategy against dengue fever and other mosquito-borne vectors
Researchers have made an important finding about Aedes aegypti mosquitoes -- one that could one day lead to better methods for reducing the mosquito-to-human transmission of dengue, yellow fever, Zika, and other harmful and sometimes deadly viruses.
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 14:12:59 EDT
Fruit flies offer clues to how brains make reward-based decisions
New research finds fruit flies make decisions based on their expectations about the likelihood of a reward and pinpoints the site in the fly brain where these value adjustments are made, enabling researchers to directly test a theory about how the brain enables this behavior on the level of neural circuits.
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 14:12:53 EDT
New research adds evidence to the benefits of ginger supplements for treating autoimmune diseases
New research has revealed a potentially important role ginger supplements can play in controlling inflammation for people living with autoimmune diseases. The research focused on studying the impact of ginger supplementation on a type of white blood cell called the neutrophil. The study was especially interested in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, also known as NETosis, and what it may mean for controlling inflammation. The study found ginger consumption by healthy individuals makes their neutrophils more resistant to NETosis. This is important because NETs are microscopic spider web-like structures that propel inflammation and clotting, which contribute to many autoimmune diseases, including lupus, antiphospholipid syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis.
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 14:12:50 EDT
Pollen analysis suggests peopling of Siberia and Europe by modern humans occurred during a major Pleistocene warming spell
A new study appearing in Science Advances compares Pleistocene vegetation communities around Lake Baikal in Siberia, Russia, to the oldest archeological traces of Homo sapiens in the region. The researchers use the 'remarkable evidence' to tell a compelling story from 45,000-50,000 years ago with new detail: how the first humans migrated across Europe and Asia.
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 14:12:47 EDT
Probing the deep genetic structure of Africa
Using ancestry decomposition techniques an international research team has revealed a deeply divergent ancestry among admixed populations from the Angolan Namib desert. This unique genetic heritage brings the researchers closer to understanding the distribution of genetic variation in the broader region of southern Africa before the spread of food production.
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 14:12:44 EDT
Jellyfish, with no central brain, shown to learn from past experience
Even without a central brain, jellyfish can learn from past experiences like humans, mice, and flies, scientists report for the first time. They trained Caribbean box jellyfish (Tripedalia cystophora) to learn to spot and dodge obstacles. The study challenges previous notions that advanced learning requires a centralized brain and sheds light on the evolutionary roots of learning and memory.
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 11:08:45 EDT
Study shows millions of people live with co-occuring chronic pain and mental health symptoms
New research found that nearly 1 in 20 adults in the U.S. experience the co-occurrence of chronic pain and anxiety or depression, resulting in functional limitations in daily life.
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 11:08:40 EDT
Colorful primates don't have better color vision, study finds
Primate species with better color vision are not more likely to have red skin or fur coloration, as previously thought.
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 11:08:31 EDT
New target to beat cancer drug resistance
A novel drug target has been newly identified in the fight against drug resistance in cancer patients.
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 11:08:29 EDT
A dendritic cell vaccine was safe and induced immune responses in patients with multiple myeloma
A dendritic cell vaccine administered before and after autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) was safe and immunogenic and was associated with durable clinical responses in patients with high-risk multiple myeloma.
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 11:08:26 EDT
Efficient fuel-molecule sieving using graphene
A research team has successfully developed a new method that can prevent the crossover of large fuel molecules and suppress the degradation of electrodes in advanced fuel cell technology using methanol or formic acid. The successful sieving of the fuel molecules is achieved via selective proton transfers due to steric hindrance on holey graphene sheets that have chemical functionalization and act as proton-exchange membranes.
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 11:08:18 EDT
Trigonelline derived from coffee improves cognitive functions in mice
Trigonelline is derived from coffee; researchers have found that it improves spatial learning and memory in senescence-accelerated mice. The study also suggested that this effect results from inhibiting neuroinflammation and restoring neurotransmitter levels in the brain.
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 11:08:15 EDT
There is much to improve in identifying all the chemicals around us
What chemicals are we exposed to on a daily basis? That is the central question of 'non-targeted analysis' or NTA, an emerging field of analytical science that aims to identify all chemicals around us. A daunting task, because how can you be sure to detect everything if you don't know exactly what you're looking for?
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 11:08:12 EDT
Astronomers discover newborn galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope
With the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope, astronomers are now able to peer so far back in time that we are approaching the epoch where we think that the first galaxies were created. Throughout most of the history of the Universe, galaxies seemingly tend to follow a tight relation between how many stars they have formed, and how many heavy elements they have formed. But for the first time we now see signs that this relation between the amount of stars and elements does not hold for the earliest galaxies. The reason is likely that these galaxies simply are in the process of being created, and have not yet had the time to create the heavy elements.
Fri, 22 Sep 2023 11:08:09 EDT