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Study reveals significant differences in RNA editing between postmortem and living human brain

Researchers have reported finding major differences between postmortem and living prefrontal cortex brain tissues as they relate to one of the most abundant RNA modifications in the brain, known as adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:29 EDT

Air pollution exposure during childhood linked directly to adult bronchitis symptoms

A research team has shown that exposure to air pollution during childhood is directly associated with bronchitis symptoms as an adult. To date, many investigations have established air pollution exposure while young is consistently associated with lung problems during childhood -- and childhood lung problems are consistently associated with lung issues as an adult.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:18 EDT

Study reveals why AI models that analyze medical images can be biased

Researchers have found that artificial intelligence models that are most accurate at predicting race and gender from X-ray images also show the biggest 'fairness gaps' -- that is, discrepancies in their ability to accurately diagnose images of people of different races or genders.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:10 EDT

Depictions of depression are often misleading

A recent study shows that people are commonly given misleading information about depression. According to the researchers, the inaccurate information makes it harder for people to understand the causes of their distress.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:52:02 EDT

A dog's puppyhood can cause 'puppy blues' reminiscent of baby blues

Bringing a puppy home is usually a happy event, but sometimes the life change that comes with it can provoke significant negative emotions. Researchers found that almost half of dog owners experience anxiety, weariness or frustration during their dog's puppyhood stage.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:51:58 EDT

Crohn's discovery could lead to better treatments for devastating condition

The new research suggests answers to why children with relapsing Crohn's endure repeated bouts even after appearing to recover. Doctors may be able to target this underlying cause to better treat Crohn's -- or even cure it.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:51:53 EDT

Creating supranormal hearing in mice

A new study has produced supranormal hearing in mice, while also supporting a hypothesis on the cause of hidden hearing loss in people.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:51:51 EDT

Breakthrough research makes cancer-fighting viral agent more effective

Researchers have made a significant breakthrough by discovering that the drug 4-OI can enhance the effectiveness of a cancer-fighting viral agent. This may lead to treatment of cancers that are otherwise resistant to therapies.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:49:38 EDT

New model could help provide expectant mothers a clearer path to safe fish consumption

Research creates a framework to better balance the nutritional benefit of fish consumption with the risk of mercury exposure to the developing brain.
Fri, 28 Jun 2024 12:42:59 EDT

Adults conceived by donors left behind by fertility industry

Children conceived by using egg or sperm donors have the same well-being outcomes as non-donor conceived people.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 20:57:31 EDT

Analysis suggests 2021 Texas abortion ban resulted in increase in infant deaths in state in year after law went into effect

Researchers use statistical modeling to estimate infant deaths expected if one of the country's most stringent state abortion laws had not been enacted. The study estimates that infant deaths in Texas increased more than expected in the year following the state's 2021 ban on abortion in early pregnancy, especially among infants with congenital anomalies.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:42:35 EDT

A heart of stone: Study defines the process of and defenses against cardiac valve calcification

The human body has sophisticated defenses against the deposition of calcium minerals that stiffen heart tissues, researchers at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and collaborators at UCLA Health and the University of Texas at Austin found in a new study that provides the first detailed, step-by-step documentation of how calcification progresses.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:23:00 EDT

First specific PET scan for TB could enable more effective treatment

A more accurate way to scan for tuberculosis (TB) has been developed, using positron emission tomography (PET). The team has developed a new radiotracer, which is taken up by live TB bacteria in the body. Radiotracers are radioactive compounds which give off radiation that can be detected by scanners and turned into a 3D image. The new radiotracer, called FDT, enables PET scans to be used for the first time to accurately pinpoint when and where the disease is still active in a patient's lungs.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:22:01 EDT

New mathematical model sheds light on the absence of breastfeeding in male mammals

Mathematicians ave put forward a hypothesis which suggests that the reason male mammals don't breastfeed might be driven by the rich community of microbes that lives in breast milk and which plays an important part in establishing the gut microbiome of the infant.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:54 EDT

Important step forward in stem cell therapy for rare bowel disease

A new study has demonstrated the potential of stem cell therapy to treat those with Hirschsprung disease.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:41 EDT

Just 4% of teen academy prospects play elite soccer (football)

Just four per cent of talented teen academy prospects make it to the top tier of professional football, a new study has shown. A sample of nearly 200 players, aged between 13-18, also revealed only six per cent of the budding ballers even go on to play in lower leagues.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:37 EDT

Optimum protection against diabetes: Weight loss plus remission of prediabetes

People with prediabetes are advised to reduce their weight in order to prevent manifest diabetes. Researchers have now been able to show that people achieve the best diabetes protection when they reduce their weight and at the same time normalize blood sugar regulation.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:35 EDT

New deep-learning model outperforms Google AI system in predicting peptide structures

Researchers have developed a deep-learning model, called PepFlow, that can predict all possible shapes of peptides -- chains of amino acids that are shorter than proteins, but perform similar biological functions. Peptides are known to be highly flexible, taking on a wide range of folding patterns, and are thus involved in many biological processes of interest to researchers in the development of therapeutics.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:25 EDT

Emotional overeating fed by temperament, caregivers' reactions to children's emotions

A research team tracked children from infancy through age 3 to explore the roots of emotional overeating. Parents/caregivers were surveyed about the children's temperaments and whether they consumed food to manage their emotions. The team found that while emotional overeating was associated with temperament and individuals' capacity to manage their emotions, parents' and caregivers' reactions to the children's negative emotions had a significant impact on whether they developed emotional overeating.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:21:21 EDT

Lie-detection AI could provoke people into making careless accusations, researchers warn

Although people lie a lot, they typically refrain from accusing others of lying because of social norms around making false accusations and being polite. But artificial intelligence (AI) could soon shake up the rules. Researchers demonstrate that people are much more likely to accuse others of lying when an AI makes an accusation. The finding provided insights into the social implications of using AI systems for lie detection, which could inform policymakers when implementing similar technologies.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:59 EDT

The mechanism behind melanoma resistance to treatment

In many cases of malignant melanoma, the effect of targeted treatment is lost over time. A research team has now discovered that a factor secreted by tumor cells is responsible for the resistance. These findings could pave the way for more effective therapies.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:55 EDT

Relationship between heart disease and spontaneous loss of Y chromosome

Researchers found that men with a higher proportion of blood cells missing Y chromosomes have a higher mortality rate from a common cause of heart disease called transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA), informing future treatment for patients with ATTR-CA.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:46 EDT

Prenatal exposure to ethylene oxide associated with lower birth weight and head circumference in newborns

A study provides new evidence on the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ethylene oxide (EO) on fetal development. The results show that increased EO exposure in utero is associated with a reduction in birth weight and head circumference in newborns.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:44 EDT

Bird flu stays stable on milking equipment for at least one hour

H5N1 virus in unpasteurized milk is stable on metal and rubber components of commercial milking equipment for at least one hour, increasing its potential to infect people and other animals.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:39 EDT

Printed sensors in soil could help farmers improve crop yields and save money

University of Wisconsin--Madison engineers have developed low-cost sensors that allow for real-time, continuous monitoring of nitrate in soil types that are common in Wisconsin. These printed electrochemical sensors could enable farmers to make better informed nutrient management decisions and reap economic benefits.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:36 EDT

Neighborhood opportunities influence infant development and cognition

Researchers find that growing up in neighborhoods with more educational and socioeconomic opportunities has a positive impact on infants' brain activity.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:34 EDT

Researchers find elementary age children experience more concussions during activities unrelated to sports

Researchers found that young children between the ages of 5 and 12 were more likely to experience a concussion from recreation and other non-sport activities, yet those injuries were not seen by specialists until days later compared with sports-related concussions in the same age group.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:29 EDT

Urban green and blue spaces are linked to less coronary artery calcification

Being near and having more exposure to urban green space and blue (water) space is linked to lower odds of having coronary artery calcification in middle age, which is an early marker of cardiovascular disease. The associations were more pronounced among Black individuals and those living in neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status, with the strongest effects observed in Black individuals in economically deprived neighborhoods.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:27 EDT

Master autoimmune regulator gets by with a little help from its friends

Researchers determined the Foxp3 protein is actually a cofactor, hijacking DNA-binding proteins responding to the immunological environment of the T cell. Based on the type of response needed, different factors are expressed, which is the driving force for Foxp3 to suppress an immune response.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:23 EDT

Intriguing new tool for tendon healing: nanoparticles for precision drug delivery

Harnessing nanoparticles to deliver drugs precisely to a surgically repaired tendon is a promising new approach that reduced scar tissue formation and improved mechanical function.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:19 EDT

We date, marry people who are attractive as we are, new analysis finds

Men and women were good at judging their own attractiveness, and tended to partner up with people who were similarly attractive.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:14 EDT

A promising weapon against measles

What happens when measles virus meets a human cell? The viral machinery unfolds in just the right way to reveal key pieces that let it fuse itself into the host cell membrane.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:20:04 EDT

Scientists use computational modeling to guide a difficult chemical synthesis

Researchers have discovered a new way to drive chemical reactions that could generate a wide variety of azetidines -- four-membered nitrogen heterocycles that have desirable pharmaceutical properties.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:19:54 EDT

Potent therapy candidate for fatal prion diseases

Scientists have developed a gene-silencing tool that shows promise as a therapy against fatal prion diseases. The tool, a streamlined epigenetic editor, paves the way for a new class of genetic approaches to treat certain diseases.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:19:43 EDT

Researchers find flexible solution for separating gases

Chemists detail a new porous material that is less expensive and more sustainable.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:19:41 EDT

Cardiovascular health could be biggest risk factor for future dementia rates

Dementia risk factors associated with cardiovascular health may have increased over time compared to factors such as smoking and having less education, finds a new study.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:18:02 EDT

Early childhood problems linked to persistent school absenteeism

Children who are not considered 'school ready' by their teachers are more than twice as likely to become persistently absent at some point in their education, according to a new study.
Thu, 27 Jun 2024 17:17:45 EDT

Review of pathogenesis, research and treatment of amyloidosis

AL (immunoglobulin light chain) amyloidosis is a rare disease that often results in progressive organ dysfunction, organ failure and eventual death. Clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow secrete free light chains into circulation. These light chains are part of immunoglobulins, also called antibodies. But in this disease, light chains misfold and aggregate into amyloid fibrils that deposit in organs and tissues.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 17:36:12 EDT

Tai Chi reduces risk of inflammatory disease, treats insomnia among breast cancer survivors

New research confirms that both Tai Chi and cognitive behavioral therapy can reduce insomnia in breast cancer survivors but also may provide additional health benefits by reducing inflammation and bolstering anti-viral defenses.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 17:36:10 EDT

Do people who exercise more have a lower risk of ALS?

Moderate levels of physical activity and fitness may be linked to a reduced risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) later in life, according to a new study. The study only found an association between physical activity and risk of ALS in male participants, not female participants.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 17:36:08 EDT

Could preventative drug be effective in people with migraine and rebound headache?

A drug used to prevent migraine may also be effective in people with migraine who experience rebound headaches, according to a new study.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 17:36:04 EDT

Study shows how liver damage from stress and aging might be reversible

While the liver is one of the body's most resilient organs, it is still vulnerable to the ravages of stress and aging, leading to disease, severe scarring and failure. A research team now might have found a way to turn back time and restore the liver. In experiments using mice and liver tissue from humans, the researchers identified how the aging process prompts certain liver cells to die off. They were then able to reverse the process in the animals with an investigational drug.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 17:35:48 EDT

Brain's 'escape switch' controlled by threat sensitivity dial

Neuroscientists have discovered how the brain bidirectionally controls sensitivity to threats to initiate and complete escape behaviour in mice. These findings could help unlock new directions for discovering therapies for anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:22:10 EDT

For healthy adults, taking multivitamins daily is not associated with a lower risk of early death

A large analysis of data from nearly 400,000 healthy U.S. adults followed for more than 20 years has found no association between regular multivitamin use and lower risk of early death.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:22:05 EDT

Cell division: Before commitment, a very long engagement

Before a cell commits fully to the process of dividing itself into two new cells, it may ensure the appropriateness of its commitment by staying for many hours -- sometimes more than a day -- in a reversible intermediate state, according to a new discovery. Their revelation of this fundamental feature of biology includes details of its mechanisms and dynamics, which may inform the development of future therapies targeting cancers and other diseases.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:21:48 EDT

The science of procrastination

Understanding why we delay tasks may help reclaim productivity.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:21:38 EDT

Microrobot-packed pill shows promise for treating inflammatory bowel disease in mice

Engineers have developed a pill that releases microscopic robots, or microrobots, into the colon to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The experimental treatment, given orally, has shown success in mice. It significantly reduced IBD symptoms and promoted the healing of damaged colon tissue without causing toxic side effects.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:21:31 EDT

The on-and-off affair in DNA

Researchers have discovered that in thale cresses histone H3 lysine-9 (H3K9) methylation, conventionally thought to be a mark of turning off gene transcription, can also turn on gene expression via the interactions of two other proteins and histone marks. The molecular mechanisms demonstrate that rather than functioning as a simple 'off switch,' H3K9 methylation is more like a 'dimmer switch' that fine-tunes DNA transcription. The discovery suggests there might be similar mechanisms in other organisms, too.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:21:22 EDT

AI generated exam answers go undetected in real-world blind test

Experienced exam markers may struggle to spot answers generated by Artificial Intelligence (AI), researchers have found.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:21:20 EDT

How do our memories last a lifetime? New study offers a biological explanation

A new study by a team of international researchers has uncovered a biological explanation for long-term memories. It centers on the discovery of the role of a molecule, KIBRA, that serves as a 'glue' to other molecules, thereby solidifying memory formation.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:21:18 EDT

First case of Down syndrome in Neanderthals documented in new study

A new study documents the first case of Down syndrome in Neanderthals and reveals that they were capable of providing altruistic care and support for a vulnerable member of their social group.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:21:08 EDT

Revolutionizing ovarian cancer treatment with adaptive PARP inhibitor therapy

A new study introduces an adaptive therapy approach that could optimize PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy, offering a more personalized and potentially less toxic treatment option for patients.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:21:04 EDT

Chemotherapy disrupts gut microbiome in patients with breast cancer

Chemotherapy is known to cause behavioral side effects, including cognitive decline. Notably, the gut microbiome communicates with the brain to affect behavior, including cognition. This clinical longitudinal observational study explored whether chemotherapy-induced disruption of the gut microbiome relates to cognitive decline and circulating inflammatory signals.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:20:55 EDT

Study finds innovative cuffless blood pressure device streamlines and enhances hypertension management

A study evaluated a cuffless monitor that uses optical sensors to record blood pressure continually and efficiently, without disruption to the patient.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:20:38 EDT

Scientists discover high-risk form of endometrial cancer -- and how to test for it -- using AI

A discovery promises to improve care for patients with endometrial cancer, the most common gynecologic malignancy. Using artificial intelligence (AI) to spot patterns across thousands of cancer cell images, the researchers have pinpointed a distinct subset of endometrial cancer that puts patients at much greater risk of recurrence and death, but would otherwise go unrecognized by traditional pathology and molecular diagnostics. The findings will help doctors identify patients with high-risk disease who could benefit from more comprehensive treatment.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:20:24 EDT

Researchers identify vascular changes in the brain linked to Alzheimer's disease

The blood-brain barrier -- a network of blood vessels and tissues that nurtures and protects the brain from harmful substances circulating in the blood -- is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease. Now, researchers have uncovered unique molecular signatures of blood-brain barrier dysfunction that could point to new ways to diagnose and treat the disease.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:20:18 EDT

Dancers are less neurotic

A study has shown that both amateur and professional dancers are less neurotic than people who do not dance. They are also more agreeable, more open, and more extraverted.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:19:17 EDT

Changing the game for sports emergency action plans

A national position statement on emergency action plan development and implementation in sports from an athletic training researcher sets in motion new priorities for responding to catastrophic injuries. The recommendations apply to sports through all levels, from youth to high school to collegiate and professional leagues.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:19:15 EDT

Light-weight microscope captures large-scale brain activity of mice on the move

With a new microscope that's as light as a penny, researchers can now observe broad swaths of the brain in action as mice move about and interact with their environments.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:19:13 EDT

Zebrafish reveal how bioelectricity shapes muscle development

New research describes how nerve cells and muscle cells communicate through electrical signals during development -- a phenomenon known as bioelectricity. The communication, which takes place via specialized channels between cells, is vital for proper development and behavior. The study identifies specific genes that control the process, and pins down what happens when it goes wrong. The finding offers clues to the genetic origins of muscle disorders in humans.
Wed, 26 Jun 2024 15:19:03 EDT

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