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Drug-like inhibitor shows promise in preventing flu

Currently available flu medications only target the virus after it has already established an infection, but what if a drug could prevent infection in the first place? Now, scientists have designed drug-like molecules to do just that, by thwarting the first stage of influenza infection.
Tue, 21 May 2024 13:23:02 EDT

PFAS exposure in men linked to the health of their offspring

Researchers are reporting new findings that demonstrate a link between exposure to per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in males and health issues in their offspring.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:47:17 EDT

Night-time heat significantly increases the risk of stroke

Researchers show that nocturnal heat significantly increases the risk of stroke. The findings can contribute to the development of preventive measures: With them, the population can better protect themselves against the risks of climate change with increasingly frequent hot nights. In addition, knowledge of the consequences of hot nights can improve patient care.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:46:17 EDT

Studies reveal cell-by-cell changes caused when pig hearts and kidneys are transplanted into humans

Two new studies detail the changes seen at the single-cell level in pig organs and recipient human bodies before, during, and just after the xenotransplantation surgeries in the decedents.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:43:07 EDT

A new gene-editing system tackles complex diseases

Current methods to model or correct mutations in live cells are inefficient, especially when multiplexing -- installing multiple point mutations simultaneously across the genome. Researchers have developed new, efficient genome editing tools called multiplexed orthogonal base editors (MOBEs) to install multiple point mutations at once.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:43:04 EDT

Clarifying the cellular mechanisms underlying periodontitis with an improved animal model

Although periodontitis is an extremely prevalent disorder, it is challenging to conduct detailed and comprehensive analyses of its progression at the cellular level. Recently, researchers developed an improved periodontitis mouse model that simplifies the collection and analysis of multiple periodontal tissue types. Using this model, they clarified the role of an important signaling pathway in the inflammatory response of periodontal tissue, paving the way for better diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for periodontitis.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:43:02 EDT

Drug helps reprogram macrophage immune cells, suppress prostate and bladder tumor growth

A novel therapy that reprograms immune cells to promote antitumor activity helped shrink hard-to-treat prostate and bladder cancers in mice, according to new research.
Tue, 21 May 2024 12:42:59 EDT

'I feel like I'm Alice in Wonderland': Why nightmares and 'daymares' could be early warning signs of autoimmune disease

An increase in nightmares and hallucinations -- or 'daymares' -- could herald the onset of autoimmune diseases such as lupus.
Mon, 20 May 2024 20:58:44 EDT

Electric school buses may yield significant health and climate benefits, cost savings

Replacing diesel school buses with electric school buses may yield up to $247,600 in climate and health benefits per individual bus, according to a new study. The researchers found that these benefits -- including fewer greenhouse gas emissions and reduced rates of adult mortality and childhood asthma -- and their associated savings are strongest in large cities and among fleets of old (2005 and before) buses.
Mon, 20 May 2024 15:55:46 EDT

Yoga and meditation-induced altered states of consciousness are common in the general population

A new study finds that altered states of consciousness associated with yoga, meditation, mindfulness, and other practices are common, and mostly positive or even transformative, but that for some people, they can be linked to suffering.
Mon, 20 May 2024 15:55:44 EDT

Mothers live longer as child mortality declines

The dramatic decline in childhood mortality during the 20th century has added a full year to women's lives, according to a new study.
Mon, 20 May 2024 15:55:37 EDT

New method to reveal what drives brain diseases

The brain is often referred to as a 'black box'-- one that's difficult to peer inside and determine what's happening at any given moment. This is part of the reason why it's difficult to understand the complex interplay of molecules, cells and genes that underlie neurological disorders. But a new CRISPR screen method has the potential to uncover new therapeutic targets and treatments for these conditions.
Mon, 20 May 2024 15:55:22 EDT

1 in 4 parents say their teen consumes caffeine daily or nearly every day

A quarter of parents report that caffeine is basically part of their teen's daily life, according to a new national poll.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:38 EDT

Extreme heat associated with children's asthma hospital visits

Extreme heat events were associated with increased asthma hospital visits, according to new research.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:30 EDT

Exercise spurs neuron growth and rewires the brain, helping mice forget traumatic and addictive memories

Researchers have found that increased neuron formation and the subsequent rewiring of neural circuits in the hippocampus through exercise or genetic manipulation helps mice forget traumatic or drug-associated memories. The findings could offer a new approach to treating mental health conditions like post-traumatic stress disorder or drug addiction.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:02 EDT

Body's 'message in a bottle' delivers targeted cancer treatment

Researchers have succeeded in delivering targeted cancer treatment via small membrane bubbles that our cells use to communicate. A new study shows that the treatment reduces tumor growth and improves survival in mice.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:51 EDT

New mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance

Two newly discovered mechanisms in bacteria have been identified that can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. Changing the number of copies of resistance genes in bacteria increases antibiotic resistance, and can do so very quickly. These two mechanisms, along with a third known mechanism, can occur independently of each other, even within the same bacterial cell.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:41 EDT

Robot-phobia could exacerbate hotel, restaurant labor shortage

Using more robots to close labor gaps in the hospitality industry may backfire and cause more human workers to quit, according to a new study. The study, involving more than 620 lodging and food service employees, found that 'robot-phobia' -- specifically the fear that robots and technology will take human jobs -- increased workers' job insecurity and stress, leading to greater intentions to leave their jobs. The impact was more pronounced with employees who had real experience working with robotic technology. It also affected managers in addition to frontline workers.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:38 EDT

Scientists uncover promising treatment target for resistant brain cancer

For many patients with a deadly type of brain cancer called glioblastoma, chemotherapy resistance is a big problem. But now, researchers may have moved a step closer to a solution.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:29 EDT

Significant gaps between science of obesity and the care patients receive

More than 40% of adults in the United States live with obesity, and the percentage of people living with obesity continues to increase dramatically. While experts have learned a great deal about the causes of obesity and effective treatments for it, that information isn't always implemented in clinical settings, which may be hindering progress in reducing the rates of cardiovascular disease.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:13 EDT

Brain 'assembloids' mimic human blood-brain barrier

Major advance promises to accelerate the understanding and improved treatment of a wide range of brain disorders, including stroke, cerebral vascular disorders, brain cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease, Parkinson's disease, and other neurodegenerative conditions.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:11 EDT

New AI algorithm may improve autoimmune disease prediction and therapies

A new advanced artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm more accurately model how genes associated with specific autoimmune diseases are expressed and regulated and to identify additional genes of risk. The method outperforms existing methodologies and identified 26% more novel gene and trait associations.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:21:11 EDT

Better medical record-keeping needed to fight antibiotic overuse

A lack of detailed record-keeping in clinics and emergency departments may be getting in the way of reducing the inappropriate use of antibiotics, a pair of new studies suggests. In one of the studies, about 10% of children and 35% of adults who got an antibiotic prescription during an office visit had no specific reason for the antibiotic in their record.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:51 EDT

Global life expectancy to increase by nearly 5 years by 2050 despite geopolitical, metabolic, and environmental threats

The latest findings forecast that global life expectancy will increase by 4.9 years in males and 4.2 years in females between 2022 and 2050. Increases are expected to be largest in countries where life expectancy is lower, contributing to a convergence of increased life expectancy across geographies. The trend is largely driven by public health measures that have prevented and improved survival rates from cardiovascular diseases, COVID-19, and a range of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (CMNNs).
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:49 EDT

Clinicians report success with first test of drug in a patient with life-threatening blood clotting disorder

A recombinant form of human ADAMTS13 approved for a different condition helped to save the life of a young mother with immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:39 EDT

Repeat COVID-19 vaccinations elicit antibodies that neutralize variants, other viruses

A study has found that repeat vaccination with updated versions of the COVID-19 vaccine promotes the development of antibodies that neutralize a wide range of variants of the virus that causes COVID-19, as well as related coronaviruses.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:26 EDT

Sweet taste receptor affects how glucose is handled metabolically by humans

The sweet-taste receptor might be the first stop in a metabolic surveillance system for sugar. The receptor is also expressed in certain intestinal cells, where it may facilitate glucose absorption and assimilation, as part of this system. A team found that stimulation and inhibition of the sweet receptor helps regulate glucose metabolism in humans and may have implications for managing such metabolic disorders as diabetes.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:21 EDT

Research finds VISTA directly blocks T-cells from functioning in immunotherapy

A team of scientists and physicians have discovered that the immune checkpoint protein VISTA can directly turn off tumor-fighting T-cells during immunotherapy and resist treatment. The study explains that VISTA can bind to a protein called LRIG1 in T cells, which was previously only thought to promote bone and fat development. When VISTA binds to LRIG1, the researchers found, LRIG1 sends signals that suppress T cell replication, survival and function. This interaction can happen between molecules on tumor cells and on T cells, molecules on healthy cells and T cells and even between molecules on the same T cell.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:16 EDT

Gut bacteria boost immune response to fight tumors

Researchers have found that a strain of gut bacteria can boost immune responses and enhance cancer immunotherapy to fight sarcoma tumors in mice.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:08 EDT

New AI tool to help beat brain tumors

A new AI tool to more quickly and accurately classify brain tumors has been developed.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:27 EDT

Seeing not just with the eyes: Degree of arousal affects perception

The brain modulates visual signals according to internal states, as a new study by neuroscientists reveals.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:24 EDT

Researchers develop 'game-changing' blood test for stroke detection

Stroke is the leading cause of disability worldwide and the second leading cause of death, but the right early intervention can prevent severe consequences. Scientists developed a new test by combining blood-based biomarkers with a clinical score to identify patients experiencing large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke with high accuracy.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:15 EDT

Fruit fly wing research offers window into birth defects

If fruit fly wings do not develop into the right shape, the flies will die. Researchers have learned how fly embryo cells develop as they need to, opening a window into human development and possible treatments for birth defects.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:13 EDT

Anti-diabetic treatment associated with reduced risk of developing blood cancer

People who use metformin are less likely to develop a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) over time, indicating that the treatment may help prevent the development of certain types of cancers, according to a new study.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:03 EDT

A trial HIV vaccine triggered elusive and essential antibodies in humans

An HIV vaccine candidate triggered low levels of an elusive type of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies among a small group of people enrolled in a 2019 clinical trial.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:14:57 EDT

Large language models can't effectively recognize users' motivation, but can support behavior change for those ready to act

Large language model-based chatbots can't effectively recognize users' motivation when they are hesitant about making healthy behavior changes, but they can support those who are committed to take action, say researchers.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:59 EDT

Normothermic perfusion system extends life of organs waiting for transplant

In the United States, about 30-40% of donor hearts aren't considered for transplant due to inadequate function in the donor. This leads to a drop in the number of donated hearts that are available to be matched with someone who needs a heart transplant.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:56 EDT

High-frequency electrical 'noise' may result in congenital night blindness

In what they believe is a solution to a 30-year biological mystery, neuroscientists say they have used genetically engineered mice to address how one mutation in the gene for the light-sensing protein rhodopsin results in congenital stationary night blindness.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:49 EDT

Imaging fibrous structure abnormalities of the white of the eye in myopathic patients

Abnormalities in the shape of the sclera, the white of the eye, can cause various complications and lead to blindness. However, techniques to observe the sclera in detail, such as its fibrous structure, are lacking. Now, researchers have used polarization-sensitive optical computed tomography to accurately visualize the density and orientation of scleral fibers in the eyes of living patients, opening doors to understanding ocular pathologies better and developing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:46 EDT

Different brain structures in females lead to more severe cognitive deficits after concussion than males

Important brain structures that are key for signaling in the brain are narrower and less dense in females, and more likely to be damaged by brain injuries, such as concussion. Long-term cognitive deficits occur when the signals between brain structures weaken due to the injury. The structural differences in male and female brains might explain why females are more prone to concussions and experience longer recovery from the injury than their male counterparts.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:43 EDT

B cells drive responses of other immune cells, and can be modified to prevent Multiple Sclerosis symptoms

B cells can control responses of myeloid cells through the release of particular cytokines (small proteins that control the growth and activity of cells in the immune system), challenging the prevailing view that T cells are the principle orchestrators of immune responses. In individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), abnormally active respiration in B cells drives pro-inflammatory responses of myeloid cells and T cells, leading them to attack the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers, and leading to nerve damage that causes symptoms of MS.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:35 EDT

The vicious cycle of protein clumping in Alzheimer's disease and normal aging

To date, approaches to treatments for Alzheimer's disease have not addressed the contribution of protein insolubility as a general phenomenon, instead focusing on one or two insoluble proteins. Researchers have recently completed a systematic study in worms that paints an intricate picture of the connections between insoluble proteins in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Furthermore, the work demonstrated an intervention that could reverse the toxic effects of the aggregates by boosting mitochondrial health.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:24 EDT

Unique brain circuit is linked to Body Mass Index

Why can some people easily stop eating when they are full and others can't, which can lead to obesity? A new study has found one reason may be a newly discovered structural connection between two regions in the brain that appears to be involved in regulating feeding behavior. These regions involve the sense of smell and behavior motivation.The weaker the connection between these two brain regions, the higher a person's Body Mass Index, the scientists report.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:19 EDT

Under stress, an observer is more likely to help the victim than to punish the perpetrator

Being stressed while witnessing injustice may push your brain towards altruism, according to a new study.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:17 EDT

Researchers discover new pathway to cancer cell suicide

Chemotherapy kills cancer cells. But the way these cells die appears to be different than previously understood. Researchers have now uncovered a completely new way in which cancer cells die: due to the Schlafen11 gene. 'This is a very unexpected finding. Cancer patients have been treated with chemotherapy for almost a century, but this route to cell death has never been observed before. Where and when this occurs in patients will need to be further investigated. This discovery could ultimately have implications for the treatment of cancer patients.'
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:09 EDT

Researchers wrestle with accuracy of AI technology used to create new drug candidates

Researchers have determined that a protein prediction technology can yield accurate results in the hunt to efficiently find the best possible drug candidates for many conditions.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:06 EDT

New gene delivery vehicle shows promise for human brain gene therapy

In an important step toward more effective gene therapies for brain diseases, researchers have engineered a gene-delivery vehicle that uses a human protein to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier and deliver a disease-relevant gene to the brain in mice expressing the human protein. Because the vehicle binds to a well-studied protein in the blood-brain barrier, the scientists say it has a good chance at working in patients.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:01 EDT

Natural toxins in food: Many people are not aware of the health risks

Many people are concerned about residues of chemicals, contaminants or microplastics in their food. However, it is less well known that many foods also contain toxins of completely natural origin. These are often chemical compounds that plants use to ward off predators such as insects or microorganisms. These substances are found in beans and potatoes, for example, and can pose potential health risks.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:26:25 EDT

To optimize guide-dog robots, first listen to the visually impaired

What features does a robotic guide dog need? Ask the blind, say researchers. A new study identifies how to develop robot guide dogs with insights from guide dog users and trainers.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:26:23 EDT

Singing repairs the language network of the brain after a cerebrovascular accident

Singing rehabilitates speech production in post-stroke aphasia. Researchers investigated the rehabilitative effect of singing on the brain.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:26:19 EDT

How does the brain turn waves of light into experiences of color?

Perceiving something -- anything -- in your surroundings is to become aware of what your senses are detecting. Today, neuroscientists identify, for the first time, brain-cell circuitry in fruit flies that converts raw sensory signals into color perceptions that can guide behavior.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:26:11 EDT

Celiac disease: New findings on the effects of gluten

Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune condition that occurs in around one per cent of the world's population. It is triggered by the consumption of gluten proteins from wheat, barley, rye and some oats. A gluten-free diet protects celiac patients from severe intestinal damage.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:26:05 EDT

Very early blood pressure control confers both benefits and harms in acute stroke

Early identification of stroke type could be key to harnessing the benefits of very early in-ambulance blood pressure lowering treatment in patients with suspected acute stroke, according to new research.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:25:53 EDT

Gene therapy relieves back pain, repairs damaged disc in mice

Disc-related back pain may one day meet its therapeutic match: gene therapy delivered by naturally derived nanocarriers that, a new study shows, repairs damaged discs in the spine and lowers pain symptoms in mice.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:25:44 EDT

Why do we overindulge?

If you tend to do other things or get distracted while eating dinner, you may be running the risk of over-consuming everyday pleasures later, possibly because the distraction caused you to enjoy yourself less, according to new research.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:25:39 EDT

'Trojan horse' weight loss drug more effective than available therapies

A groundbreaking article describes a promising new therapy for obesity that leads to greater weight loss in mice than existing medications. The approach smuggles molecules into the brain's appetite center and affects the brain's neuroplasticity.
Wed, 15 May 2024 22:51:07 EDT

When saying 'please' is more strategic than magic

By kindergarten age, most children have been taught that 'please' is a magic word. 'Please' is an expression of politeness that shows courtesy and respect, turning a potential demand into a request that will -- poof! -- magically be granted. But a new study on the ways people make requests of one another suggests that 'please' might not be an all-purpose marker of politeness, but rather a more focused, strategic tool to manage frictions or obstacles among family members, friends and even coworkers. The study shows that people say 'please' much less often than expected, and mostly when they expect a 'no' response is forthcoming.
Wed, 15 May 2024 22:51:04 EDT

Climate change likely to aggravate brain conditions

Climate change, and its effects on weather patterns and adverse weather events, is likely to negatively affect the health of people with brain conditions, argue a team of researchers.
Wed, 15 May 2024 22:50:59 EDT

Blood pressure drugs more than double bone-fracture risk in nursing home patients

New research finds a link between common medications and life-threatening injuries.
Wed, 15 May 2024 22:50:46 EDT

Pre- and post-surgical immunotherapy improves outcomes for patients with operable lung cancer

Compared with pre-surgical (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy alone, adding perioperative immunotherapy -- given before and after surgery -- significantly improved event-free survival (EFS) in patients with resectable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC), according to researchers.
Wed, 15 May 2024 22:48:36 EDT

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