Endovascular catheter opens blocked arteries deep within lungs
A new endovascular catheter, recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is paving the way to more effective and safe treatment for acute pulmonary embolism. Already shown to be effective for reducing blockages in lung arteries, new research shows that this catheter also reduces blockages in the smaller segmental pulmonary artery branches. These branches are ultimately responsible for oxygenating the blood in the lungs. The new study, which was part of the National Institutes of Health-sponsored multicenter RESCUE clinical trial, further showed a correlation between decreased numbers of blockages in the small lung arteries and functional recovery of the right ventricle of the heart, which pumps blood into the main pulmonary artery of the lungs. Compared to other devices, the BASHIR™ catheter also had significantly lower bleeding rates, a key advance in acute pulmonary embolism treatment. The findings are described in JACC: Advances.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:10 EST
Adversity accelerates epigenetic aging in children with developmental delays, but positive parenting can reverse course
Research has shown that children who experience adversity during their early years may undergo faster biological aging. Nonetheless, a recent study reveals that positive parenting interventions can potentially shield children from this consequence, helping slow the epigenetic aging process.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:07 EST
Mathematics supporting fresh theoretical approach in oncology
Mathematics, histopathology and genomics converge to confirm that the most aggressive clear cell renal cell carcinomas display low levels of intratumour heterogeneity, i.e. they contain fewer distinct cell types. The study supports the hypothesis that it would be advisable to apply therapeutic strategies to maintain high levels of cellular heterogeneity within the tumour in order to slow down the evolution of the cancer and improve human survival.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:04 EST
Researchers have cracked the cellular code on protein folding, offering hope for new therapeutic avenues for many diseases
While we often think of diseases as caused by foreign bodies -- bacteria or viruses -- there are hundreds of diseases affecting humans that result from errors in cellular production of its proteins. A team of researchers recently leveraged the power of cutting-edge technology, including an innovative technique called glycoproteomics, to unlock the carbohydrate-based code that governs how certain classes of proteins form themselves into the complex shapes necessary to keep us healthy.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:53 EST
Brains of newborns aren't underdeveloped compared to other primates
Contrary to current understanding, the brains of human newborns aren't significantly less developed compared to other primate species, but appear so because so much brain development happens after birth, finds a new study.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:42 EST
New study maps ketamine's effects on brain
A mouse study found that the drug ketamine can alter the brain's dopamine system, boosting the case for more targeted medical use.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:40 EST
Studies help explain why some prostate cancers become resistant to hormone therapy
Two new studies give insight into how cells use energy to influence the way prostate tumors survive and grow -- advancements that can help explain why some prostate cancers become resistant to hormone therapy, the most commonly used treatment for men with advanced stages of the disease.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:37 EST
Salty immune cells surrounding the brain linked to hypertension-induced dementia
A study suggests that the response of immune system cells inside the protective covering surrounding the brain may contribute to the cognitive decline that can occur in a person with chronic high blood pressure. This finding may shed light on new ways to counteract the effects of high blood pressure on cognition.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:34 EST
New technique efficiently offers insight into gene regulation
Researchers have developed a new technique called MAbID. This allows them to simultaneously study different mechanisms of gene regulation, which plays a major role in development and disease. MAbID offers new insights into how these mechanisms work together or against each other.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:32 EST
Decoding flavonoid metabolism: A closer look at plant-based diets
An international team of researchers has elucidated the process by which the major flavonoids naringenin, apigenin, and genistein are metabolized in the body. These findings are fundamental in elucidating the correlation between the metabolism of flavonoids in the body and their potential health benefits.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:48:29 EST
Vitamin D supplements do not prevent bone fractures in children
A major clinical trial has found that vitamin D supplements do not increase bone strength or prevent bone fractures in children with vitamin D deficiency. The findings challenge widely held perceptions relating to the effects of vitamin D on bone health.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 19:42:55 EST
Can preeclampsia be prevented?
Preeclampsia is a mysterious condition that occurs in about one of 10 pregnancies without any early warning signs. After 20 weeks or more of normal blood pressure during the pregnancy, patients with preeclampsia will begin to experience elevated blood pressure and may also have increased levels of protein in their urine due to hypertension reducing the filtering power of the kidneys. Prolonged hypertension due to preeclampsia can lead to organ damage and life-threatening complications for mothers and fetuses.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:32:18 EST
Pathogens use force to breach immune defenses, study finds
New research has revealed a previously unknown process through which pathogens are able to defeat a cell's defense mechanisms with physical force. The discovery represents a potential game-changer in the fight against intracellular pathogens, which cause infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and chlamydia.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:32:15 EST
Meditation training can support wellbeing in older adults
Following an 18-month meditation program can improve the wellbeing of older adults, finds a new randomized controlled trial by an international team.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:32:11 EST
Human behavior guided by fast changes in dopamine levels
A new study shows that dopamine release in the human brain plays a crucial role in encoding both reward and punishment prediction errors. This means that dopamine is involved in the process of learning from both positive and negative experiences, allowing the brain to adjust and adapt its behavior based on the outcomes of these experiences.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:32:08 EST
Scientists work to bring tissue regeneration to replace root canal treatment
Scientists are testing a novel technology to treat endodontic diseases more effectively through tissue regeneration instead of root canal therapy. Because the technology promotes formation of the type of stem cells that can differentiate into dentin (tooth), bone, cartilage or fat, it has huge potential for the field of regenerative medicine beyond the tissues in the teeth. It could be used to grow bones in other parts of the body.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:34 EST
A patch of protection against Zika virus
A simple-to-apply, needle-free vaccine patch is being developed to protect people from the potentially deadly mosquito-borne Zika virus.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:20 EST
Replicating the structure of bird feathers
Researchers at ETH Zurich have created a material traversed by a network of channels the size of micrometres in the same way as the microstructure of a bird's feather. To do so they have developed a new method based on the phase separation of a polymer matrix and an oily solution. The new material could be used in batteries or filtration.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:52 EST
Why reading nursery rhymes and singing to babies may help them to learn language
Phonetic information -- the smallest sound elements of speech -- may not be the basis of language learning in babies as previously thought. Babies don't begin to process phonetic information reliably until seven months old -- which researchers say is too late to form the foundation of language. Instead, babies learn from rhythmic information -- the changing emphasis of syllables in speech -- which unlike phonetic information, can be heard in the womb.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:44 EST
Researchers caution diabetes patients' use of fitness video games
The authors of a new study are warning people with type-1 diabetes to use fitness video games with caution. The study has found that 'exergames' can change people's perceptions of how fatigued they are -- which is potentially harmful for those with the condition.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:41 EST
To help autonomous vehicles make moral decisions, researchers ditch the 'trolley problem'
Researchers have developed a new experiment to better understand what people view as moral and immoral decisions related to driving vehicles, with the goal of collecting data to train autonomous vehicles how to make 'good' decisions. The work is designed to capture a more realistic array of moral challenges in traffic than the widely discussed life-and-death scenario inspired by the so-called 'trolley problem.'
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:35 EST
Experimental drug combination shows promise against hard-to-treat peripheral nerve sheath tumors
Combining a pair of experimental drugs may help treat malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors with fewer harmful side effects, according to preliminary animal studies.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:32 EST
The world needs more empathy -- here is how science can harness it
In a world grappling with deep-seated division and social upheaval, empathy has become more critical than ever. But science suggests when it comes to evoking empathy, our imagination is more powerful than we previously thought. A new study reveals how the different ways to experience empathy affect our willingness to help others.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:29 EST
How does neonatal listeriosis impact children's health?
Maternal-fetal listeriosis is a severe disease that can lead to miscarriage, premature birth or serious neonatal infection. But what are the long-term consequences of neonatal listeriosis on the health of surviving infants? A team of scientists and physicians monitored the development of children infected with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes up to the age of 5, and compared their development with that of uninfected gestational age-matched children. The study showed that the long-term outcomes of neonatal listeriosis were mainly due to prematurity.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:24 EST
Brainstorming with a bot
Electronic nanomaterials experts have imagined how recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) could aid scientific brainstorming and ideation. To accomplish this, they have developed a chatbot with knowledge in the kinds of science he's been engaged in.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:12 EST
How pre- and postnatal B-12 vitamins improve breast milk vitamin B-12 levels, which supports infant brain development
According to a new study B-12 vitamins increase the presence of the micronutrient in mothers' breast milk, which is especially helpful in countries where it can be difficult to eat what is needed for the body to produce B-12 naturally.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:09 EST
Scientists build tiny biological robots from human cells
Scientists have created tiny moving biological robots from human tracheal cells that can encourage the growth of neurons across artificial 'wounds' in the lab. Using patients' own cells could permit growth of Anthrobots that assist healing and regeneration in the future with no nead for immune suppression.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 18:42:49 EST
Harnessing the power of a parasite that can stop pain
For the first time, scientists have begun to figure out why the disfiguring skin lesions caused by cutaneous leishmaniasis don't hurt.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 18:42:45 EST
New research explores future limits of survival and livability in extreme heat conditions
Researchers have developed a new modeling approach to assess the likelihood of human survivability and liveability during exposure to extreme heat. The new model can be applied in any climate regime and customized with populations that have potential co-morbidities. The approach integrates well-established principles from thermal physiology and human biophysics. The study's results include current and future extreme heat across very hot and dry, and very hot and humid conditions, with risks increasing over most of the world.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 18:42:25 EST
New study uses genetic data to support use of thiazide diuretics for kidney stone prevention
Kidney stones affect nearly 10% of the global population. For more than three decades, thiazide diuretics, a common medication used for high blood pressure, have been the standard of care for kidney stone prevention because they reduce the excretion of urinary calcium.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 18:42:22 EST
Study tests firefighter turnout gear with, without PFAS
Transitioning away from per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), which offer water- and oil-repelling properties on the outer shells of firefighter turnout gear, could bring potential performance tradeoffs, according to a new study.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 18:40:46 EST
Hope for autoimmune skin disorder sufferers with new immunotherapy strategy
Researchers discovered distinct mechanisms controlling different types of immune cells, and found that, by precisely targeting these mechanisms, they could selectively eliminate 'problematic cells' and reshape the skin's immune landscape.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 14:54:38 EST
High altitude training shows promise for patients ahead of surgery
Simulated high altitude could help older patients at risk of health complications related to surgery, a new study has found.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 14:54:33 EST
Scientists use A.I.-generated images to map visual functions in the brain
Researchers have demonstrated the use of AI-selected natural images and AI-generated synthetic images as neuroscientific tools for probing the visual processing areas of the brain. The goal is to apply a data-driven approach to understand how vision is organized while potentially removing biases that may arise when looking at responses to a more limited set of researcher-selected images.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 14:54:31 EST
Despite pressures facing young families, parents take precious moments to play with their babies
Four in five primary caregivers of nine-month-old babies reported cuddling, talking and playing with their little one several times a day, in the first national long-term study of babies in over two decades.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 14:54:26 EST
Researchers develop new brain network modeling tools to advance Alzheimer's disease research
Researchers are collaborating on a novel approach to use neuroimaging and network modeling tools -- previously developed to analyze brains of patients in the clinic -- to investigate Alzheimer's disease progression in preclinical animal models.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 14:54:18 EST
Children who play baseball risk elbow injury
Youth baseball players are prone to elbow pain and injuries, including repetitive overuse changes and fractures, based on the maturity of their bones, according to a new study.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:47 EST
Researchers discover new classes of RNA for learning and memory
Researchers have discovered a new way ribonucleic acid (RNA) impacts fear-related learning and memory. Researchers demonstrated that a noncoding RNA known as Gas5 coordinates the trafficking and clustering of RNA molecules inside the long processes of neurons, and orchestrating neuronal excitability in real time that contributes to learning and memory. This study builds on earlier findings this year which identified a separate population of learning-related RNAs that accumulate near the synapse -- the junction between neurons that allow them to communicate. In that paper, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, they uncovered several new synapse-specific RNA that harbour a specific chemical tag called N6-methyladenosine (m6A).
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:44 EST
Phasing out fossil fuels could save millions of lives
Scientists provide new evidence to motivate rapid fossil fuel phaseout. The science team determined exposure to ambient air pollution and its health impacts using an updated atmospheric composition model, a newly developed relative risk model and recent satellite-based fine particle data. They estimated all-cause and disease-specific mortality and attributed them to emission categories. They show that phasing out fossil fuels is a remarkably effective health-improving and life-saving intervention. About 5 million excess deaths per year globally could potentially be avoided.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:41 EST
Protected droplets a new transport route for medicines
Microgels form a thin protective shell around a droplet until the temperature rises above 32 degrees. Then the microgels shrink and the droplet dissolves in the surrounding liquid. A study now reveals the underlying mechanism behind this process. The discovery could revolutionize methods of targeting medicines to specific locations within the body.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:36 EST
What makes sustainable consumption so difficult
When it comes to self-discipline, psychological research traditionally focuses on individual responsibility. Some researchers believe this is too short-sighted. Self-discipline doesn't work without effective regulation.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:30 EST
Optimistic thinking linked with lower cognitive abilities
Optimistic thinking has long been immortalized in self-help books as the key to happiness, good health and longevity but it can also lead to poor decision making, with particularly serious implications for people's financial wellbeing.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:28 EST
Brain waves usually found in sleep can protect against epileptic activity
Slow waves that usually only occur in the brain during sleep are also present during wakefulness in people with epilepsy and may protect against increased brain excitability associated with the condition, finds a new study.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:23 EST
Loss of auditory nerve fibers uncovered in individuals with tinnitus
Researchers have uncovered that tinnitus, an incurable persistent ringing or other sounds in the ears, might result from underlying auditory nerve damage that can't be detected on conventional hearing tests. The work builds upon previous research into cochlear synaptopathy or 'hidden hearing loss,' a difficulty hearing in noisy environments despite showing normal results on hearing tests. The researchers hope these new findings into the mechanisms underlying tinnitus could lead to treatment options.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:21 EST
Lost brain function restored in mice after stroke
Researchers have succeeded in restoring lost brain function in mouse models of stroke using small molecules that in the future could potentially be developed into a stroke recovery therapy.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:07 EST
Progress toward improved vaccines
To ensure that vaccines provide strong and lasting immunization, it is often necessary to supplement the actual vaccine (antigen) with additives that stimulate the immune system: adjuvants. Today, only a few substances have been approved for use as adjuvants. A research team has now introduced a spectrum of potential adjuvants. They started with the immune stimulant ?-glactosyl ceramide (?-GalCer) and synthesized many different variants from a set of four building blocks.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:00 EST
Parental engagement positively associated with safer driving among young people, UGR study finds
The results show that while close supervision may be linked to increased anxiety when driving, it is also associated with a more cautious attitude behind the wheel.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:31:35 EST
Climate: Why disinformation is so persistent
Melting of glaciers, rising sea levels, extreme heat waves: the consequences of climate change are more visible than ever, and the scientific community has confirmed that humans are responsible. Yet studies show that a third of the population still doubts or disputes these facts. The cause is disinformation spread by certain vested interests. To try and prevent this phenomenon, a team has developed and tested six psychological interventions on nearly 7,000 participants from twelve countries. The research highlights the extremely persuasive nature of disinformation and the need to strengthen our efforts to combat it.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:30:49 EST
Early body contact develops premature babies' social skills
Skin-to-skin contact between parent and infant during the first hours after a very premature birth helps develop the child's social skills. The study also shows that fathers may play a more important role than previous research has shown.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:30:47 EST
Twin research indicates that a vegan diet improves cardiovascular health
A recent trial of identical twins comparing vegan and omnivore diets found that a vegan diet improves overall cardiovascular health.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:30:42 EST
A mineral produced by plate tectonics has a global cooling effect
Plate tectonics can trigger ice ages through the production of the carbon-trapping mineral smectite, according to a new study.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:30:40 EST
Distinct brain activity triggered by memories of trauma
It is well known that people who have lived through traumatic events like sexual assault, domestic abuse, or violent combat can experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including terrifying flashbacks, severe anxiety, and uncontrollable thoughts about the incident. But what exactly happens in the brains of PTSD patients as they recall these traumatic events? Are they remembered the same way as, say, the loss of a beloved pet -- or, for that matter, a relaxing walk on the beach?
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:30:32 EST
This 'gross' mixture has big benefits for the study of bacteria
Researchers have discovered that growing bacteria on agar mixed with organs is an efficient and effective way to study infectious pathogens.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:26:25 EST
Rise of microplastics discovered in placentas of Hawaii mothers
A new study examined placentas donated by women who delivered in Hawaii from 2006 to 2021, and found the presence of microplastic particles in the placenta.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 23:44:37 EST
Very high levels of 'good cholesterol' may be associated with dementia risk: study
Abnormally high levels of HDL-C, colloquially known as 'good cholesterol', are associated with an increased risk of dementia in older adults.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 18:43:46 EST
Brittle stars can learn just fine -- even without a brain
We humans are fixated on big brains as a proxy for smarts. But headless animals called brittle stars have no brains at all and still manage to learn through experience, new research reveals. These shy marine creatures have no brain to speak of -- just nerve cords running down each of their five wiggly arms. But that seems to be enough to learn by association, researchers report.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 17:42:14 EST
A study unveils the link between musical preferences and our inner moral compass
A new study provides compelling evidence that music preferences can serve as a window into an individual's moral values. It has uncovered an important link between music and morality, paving the way for a deeper understanding of the psychological dimensions of our musical experiences.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 17:42:02 EST
Pulling an all-nighter? Don't follow with an important decision
With little insight into the impact of a lack of sleep on risky decision-making at the neuroimaging level, researchers found a 24-hour period of sleep deprivation significantly impacted individuals' decision-making processes by dampening neural responses to the outcomes of their choices.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 17:41:56 EST
Certain migraine medications may be more effective than Ibuprofen
For many people with migraine, it can be difficult to find a treatment that is effective and reliable, and information on how medications compare to one another is lacking. A new study draws data from nearly 300,000 people using a smartphone app to help people make decisions about their medications. The study found that certain migraine medications like triptans, ergots and anti-emetics may be two to five times more effective than ibuprofen for treating migraine attacks, according to new research.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 17:40:11 EST
AI may aid in diagnosing adolescents with ADHD
Using artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze specialized brain MRI scans of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), researchers found significant differences in nine brain white matter tracts in individuals with ADHD.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 15:01:17 EST