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'Vigorous melting' at Antarctica's Thwaites 'Doomsday' Glacier

Glaciologists show evidence of warm ocean water intruding kilometers beneath grounded ice at Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica. The findings suggest that existing climate models are underestimating the impact of ocean and ice interactions in future sea level rise projections.
Mon, 20 May 2024 15:55:41 EDT

AI chips could get a sense of time

Artificial neural networks may soon be able to process time-dependent information, such as audio and video data, more efficiently.
Mon, 20 May 2024 15:55:19 EDT

Webb Telescope offers first glimpse of an exoplanet's interior

A surprisingly low amount of methane and a super-sized core hide within the cotton candy -- like planet WASP-107 b.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:40 EDT

Blueprints of self-assembly

Scientists have taken a step closer to replicating nature's processes of self-assembly. The study describes the synthetic construction of a tiny, self-assembled crystal known as a 'pyrochlore,' which bears unique optical properties. The advance provides a steppingstone to the eventual construction of sophisticated, self-assembling devices at the nanoscale -- roughly the size of a single virus.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:35 EDT

Meerkat chit-chat

Researchers unravel the vocal interactions of meerkat groups and show they use two different types of interactions to stay in touch.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:25 EDT

Body's 'message in a bottle' delivers targeted cancer treatment

Researchers have succeeded in delivering targeted cancer treatment via small membrane bubbles that our cells use to communicate. A new study shows that the treatment reduces tumor growth and improves survival in mice.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:51 EDT

2D materials: A catalyst for future quantum technologies

Researchers have discovered that a 'single atomic defect' in a layered 2D material can hold onto quantum information for microseconds at room temperature. This underscores the broader potential of 2D materials in advancing quantum technologies.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:48 EDT

Diverse headgear in hoofed mammals evolved from common ancestor

From the small ossicones on a giraffe to the gigantic antlers of a male moose -- which can grow as wide as a car -- the headgear of ruminant hooved mammals is extremely diverse, and new research suggests that despite the physical differences, fundamental aspects of these bony adaptations likely evolved from a common ancestor.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:45 EDT

New mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance

Two newly discovered mechanisms in bacteria have been identified that can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. Changing the number of copies of resistance genes in bacteria increases antibiotic resistance, and can do so very quickly. These two mechanisms, along with a third known mechanism, can occur independently of each other, even within the same bacterial cell.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:41 EDT

Robot-phobia could exasperate hotel, restaurant labor shortage

Using more robots to close labor gaps in the hospitality industry may backfire and cause more human workers to quit, according to a new study. The study, involving more than 620 lodging and food service employees, found that 'robot-phobia' -- specifically the fear that robots and technology will take human jobs -- increased workers' job insecurity and stress, leading to greater intentions to leave their jobs. The impact was more pronounced with employees who had real experience working with robotic technology. It also affected managers in addition to frontline workers.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:38 EDT

Scientists uncover promising treatment target for resistant brain cancer

For many patients with a deadly type of brain cancer called glioblastoma, chemotherapy resistance is a big problem. But now, researchers may have moved a step closer to a solution.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:29 EDT

Cloudy waters causes African fish to develop bigger eyes

Variations in water quality can impact the development of the visual system of one species of African fish, suggests a new study.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:23 EDT

Subduction zone splay faults compound hazards of great earthquakes

Groundbreaking research has provided new insight into the tectonic plate shifts that create some of the Earth's largest earthquakes and tsunamis.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:21 EDT

Record low Antarctic sea ice 'extremely unlikely' without climate change

Scientists have found that the record-low levels of sea ice around Antarctica in 2023 were extremely unlikely to happen without the influence of climate change. This low was a one-in-a-2000-year event without climate change and four times more likely under its effects.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:18 EDT

After hundreds of years, study confirms Bermuda now home to cownose rays

Using citizen science, photographs, on-water observations and the combination of morphological and genetic data, researchers have provided evidence that the Atlantic cownose ray has recently made a new home in Bermuda. Results show that after hundreds of years of natural history records, this is a novel migration of Atlantic cownose rays to Bermuda.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:16 EDT

Significant gaps between science of obesity and the care patients receive

More than 40% of adults in the United States live with obesity, and the percentage of people living with obesity continues to increase dramatically. While experts have learned a great deal about the causes of obesity and effective treatments for it, that information isn't always implemented in clinical settings, which may be hindering progress in reducing the rates of cardiovascular disease.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:13 EDT

Brain 'assembloids' mimic human blood-brain barrier

Major advance promises to accelerate the understanding and improved treatment of a wide range of brain disorders, including stroke, cerebral vascular disorders, brain cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease, Parkinson's disease, and other neurodegenerative conditions.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:11 EDT

Expanding on the fundamental principles of liquid movement

We are living in a world surrounded by liquid and flow, and understanding the principles that govern its movement is vital in our high-tech world. Through mathematical modeling and experimentation, researchers have expanded on Tanner's Law -- a law in fluid dynamics that describes how non-volatile liquids move across surfaces -- to cover a wider range of volatile liquids. These findings have the potential to play a role in various liquid-based industries such as electronics cooling.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:05 EDT

New AI algorithm may improve autoimmune disease prediction and therapies

A new advanced artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm more accurately model how genes associated with specific autoimmune diseases are expressed and regulated and to identify additional genes of risk. The method outperforms existing methodologies and identified 26% more novel gene and trait associations.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:21:11 EDT

Better medical record-keeping needed to fight antibiotic overuse

A lack of detailed record-keeping in clinics and emergency departments may be getting in the way of reducing the inappropriate use of antibiotics, a pair of new studies suggests. In one of the studies, about 10% of children and 35% of adults who got an antibiotic prescription during an office visit had no specific reason for the antibiotic in their record.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:51 EDT

Global life expectancy to increase by nearly 5 years by 2050 despite geopolitical, metabolic, and environmental threats

The latest findings forecast that global life expectancy will increase by 4.9 years in males and 4.2 years in females between 2022 and 2050. Increases are expected to be largest in countries where life expectancy is lower, contributing to a convergence of increased life expectancy across geographies. The trend is largely driven by public health measures that have prevented and improved survival rates from cardiovascular diseases, COVID-19, and a range of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (CMNNs).
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:49 EDT

Modern plant enzyme partners with surprisingly ancient protein

Scientists have discovered that a protein responsible for the synthesis of a key plant material evolved much earlier than suspected. This new research explored the origin and evolution of the biochemical machinery that builds lignin, a structural component of plant cell walls with significant impacts on the clean energy industry.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:41 EDT

Clinicians report success with first test of drug in a patient with life-threatening blood clotting disorder

A recombinant form of human ADAMTS13 approved for a different condition helped to save the life of a young mother with immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:39 EDT

Ion irradiation offers promise for 2D material probing

Two-dimensional materials such as graphene promise to form the basis of incredibly small and fast technologies, but this requires a detailed understanding of their electronic properties. New research demonstrates that fast electronic processes can be probed by irradiating the materials with ions first.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:36 EDT

Physicists propose path to faster, more flexible robots

Physicists revealed a microscopic phenomenon that could greatly improve the performance of soft devices, such as agile flexible robots or microscopic capsules for drug delivery.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:28 EDT

Repeat COVID-19 vaccinations elicit antibodies that neutralize variants, other viruses

A study has found that repeat vaccination with updated versions of the COVID-19 vaccine promotes the development of antibodies that neutralize a wide range of variants of the virus that causes COVID-19, as well as related coronaviruses.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:26 EDT

Sweet taste receptor affects how glucose is handled metabolically by humans

The sweet-taste receptor might be the first stop in a metabolic surveillance system for sugar. The receptor is also expressed in certain intestinal cells, where it may facilitate glucose absorption and assimilation, as part of this system. A team found that stimulation and inhibition of the sweet receptor helps regulate glucose metabolism in humans and may have implications for managing such metabolic disorders as diabetes.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:21 EDT

How heatwaves are affecting Arctic phytoplankton

The basis of the marine food web in the Arctic, the phytoplankton, responds to heatwaves much differently than to constantly elevated temperatures. This has been found by the first targeted experiments on the topic. The phytoplankton's behavior primarily depends on the cooling phases after or between heatwaves.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:06 EDT

Differing values of nature can still lead to joined up goals for sustainability

Recognizing and respecting the different ways nature is valued can enable better environmental decision-making, according to new research.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:16:02 EDT

Can we revolutionize the chemical industry and create a circular economy? Yes, with the help of catalysts

A new commentary paper puts forth a transformative solution to the unsustainable reliance on fossil resources by the chemical industry: catalysis to leverage sustainable waste resources, ushering the industry from a linear to a circular economy.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:59 EDT

Diamond glitter: A play of colors with artificial DNA crystals

Using DNA origami, researchers have built a diamond lattice with a periodicity of hundreds of nanometers -- a new approach for manufacturing semiconductors for visible light.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:36 EDT

Zombie cells in the sea: Viruses keep the most common marine bacteria in check

Marine microbes control the flux of matter and energy essential for life in the oceans. Among them, the bacterial group SAR11 accounts for about a third of all the bacteria found in surface ocean waters. A study now reveals that at times nearly 20% of SAR11 cells are infected by viruses, significantly reducing total cell numbers. The viruses can also transform these once thriving bacteria into zombies, a phenomenon observed for the first time and widespread in the oceans.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:33 EDT

Plants restrict use of 'Tipp-Ex proteins'

Plants have special corrective molecules at their disposal that can make retrospective modifications to copies of genes. However, it would appear that these 'Tipp-Ex proteins' do not have permission to work in all areas of the cell, only being used in chloroplasts and mitochondria. A study has now explained why this is the case. It suggests that the correction mechanism would otherwise modify copies that have nothing wrong with them, with fatal consequences for the cell.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:30 EDT

New AI tool to help beat brain tumors

A new AI tool to more quickly and accurately classify brain tumors has been developed.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:27 EDT

Seeing not just with the eyes: Degree of arousal affects perception

The brain modulates visual signals according to internal states, as a new study by neuroscientists reveals.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:24 EDT

Deep-sea sponge's 'zero-energy' flow control could inspire new energy efficient designs

The deep-sea Venus flower basket sponge can filter feed using only the faint ambient currents of the ocean depths, no pumping required, new research reveals. This discovery of natural 'zero energy' flow control could help engineers design more efficient chemical reactors, air purification systems, heat exchangers, hydraulic systems, and aerodynamic surfaces.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:18 EDT

Researchers develop 'game-changing' blood test for stroke detection

Stroke is the leading cause of disability worldwide and the second leading cause of death, but the right early intervention can prevent severe consequences. Scientists developed a new test by combining blood-based biomarkers with a clinical score to identify patients experiencing large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke with high accuracy.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:15 EDT

Fruit fly wing research offers window into birth defects

If fruit fly wings do not develop into the right shape, the flies will die. Researchers have learned how fly embryo cells develop as they need to, opening a window into human development and possible treatments for birth defects.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:13 EDT

Ancient arachnid from coal forests of America stands out for its spiny legs

The spiny legged 308-million-year-old arachnid Douglassarachne acanthopoda was discovered the famous Mazon Creek locality.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:09 EDT

Anti-diabetic treatment associated with reduced risk of developing blood cancer

People who use metformin are less likely to develop a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) over time, indicating that the treatment may help prevent the development of certain types of cancers, according to a new study.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:03 EDT

A trial HIV vaccine triggered elusive and essential antibodies in humans

An HIV vaccine candidate triggered low levels of an elusive type of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies among a small group of people enrolled in a 2019 clinical trial.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:14:57 EDT

A powerful tool speeds success in achieving highly efficient thermoelectric materials

Thermoelectric materials could play an important role in the clean energy transition, as they can produce electricity from sources of heat that would otherwise go to waste. Researchers report a new approach to efficiently predict when thermoelectric materials will have improved performance in converting heat into electricity.
Thu, 16 May 2024 20:51:55 EDT

Airborne technology brings new hope to map shallow aquifers in Earth's most arid deserts

The new technique will map the top of the aquifer, called the 'water table,' spanning areas as large as hundreds of kilometers using a radar mounted on a high-altitude aircraft. According to the researchers, Desert-SEA will measure the variabilities in the depth of the water table on a large scale, allowing water scientists to assess the sustainability of these aquifers without the limitations associated with in-situ mapping in harsh and inaccessible environments.
Thu, 16 May 2024 20:51:52 EDT

A new 'rule of biology' may have come to light, expanding insight into evolution and aging

A molecular biologist may have found a new 'rule of biology.' The rule challenges long-held notions that most living organisms prefer stability over instability because stability requires less energy and fewer resources.
Thu, 16 May 2024 20:51:48 EDT

Large language models can't effectively recognize users' motivation, but can support behavior change for those ready to act

Large language model-based chatbots can't effectively recognize users' motivation when they are hesitant about making healthy behavior changes, but they can support those who are committed to take action, say researchers.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:59 EDT

Normothermic perfusion system extends life of organs waiting for transplant

In the United States, about 30-40% of donor hearts aren't considered for transplant due to inadequate function in the donor. This leads to a drop in the number of donated hearts that are available to be matched with someone who needs a heart transplant.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:56 EDT

High-frequency electrical 'noise' may result in congenital night blindness

In what they believe is a solution to a 30-year biological mystery, neuroscientists say they have used genetically engineered mice to address how one mutation in the gene for the light-sensing protein rhodopsin results in congenital stationary night blindness.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:49 EDT

Imaging fibrous structure abnormalities of the white of the eye in myopathic patients

Abnormalities in the shape of the sclera, the white of the eye, can cause various complications and lead to blindness. However, techniques to observe the sclera in detail, such as its fibrous structure, are lacking. Now, researchers have used polarization-sensitive optical computed tomography to accurately visualize the density and orientation of scleral fibers in the eyes of living patients, opening doors to understanding ocular pathologies better and developing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:46 EDT

Different brain structures in females lead to more severe cognitive deficits after concussion than males

Important brain structures that are key for signaling in the brain are narrower and less dense in females, and more likely to be damaged by brain injuries, such as concussion. Long-term cognitive deficits occur when the signals between brain structures weaken due to the injury. The structural differences in male and female brains might explain why females are more prone to concussions and experience longer recovery from the injury than their male counterparts.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:43 EDT

B cells drive responses of other immune cells, and can be modified to prevent Multiple Sclerosis symptoms

B cells can control responses of myeloid cells through the release of particular cytokines (small proteins that control the growth and activity of cells in the immune system), challenging the prevailing view that T cells are the principle orchestrators of immune responses. In individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), abnormally active respiration in B cells drives pro-inflammatory responses of myeloid cells and T cells, leading them to attack the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers, and leading to nerve damage that causes symptoms of MS.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:35 EDT

Scientists use generative AI to answer complex questions in physics

Researchers used generative AI to develop a physics-informed technique to classify phase transitions in materials or physical systems that is much more efficient than existing machine-learning approaches.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:30 EDT

New sensor gives unprecedented look at changes in cell's energy 'currency'

A new sensor is giving researchers the best look yet at ATP levels inside living cells, enabling scientists to study in greater detail than ever before how fluctuations in this cellular currency affect the cell and contribute to disease.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:27 EDT

The vicious cycle of protein clumping in Alzheimer's disease and normal aging

To date, approaches to treatments for Alzheimer's disease have not addressed the contribution of protein insolubility as a general phenomenon, instead focusing on one or two insoluble proteins. Researchers have recently completed a systematic study in worms that paints an intricate picture of the connections between insoluble proteins in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Furthermore, the work demonstrated an intervention that could reverse the toxic effects of the aggregates by boosting mitochondrial health.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:24 EDT

Unique brain circuit is linked to Body Mass Index

Why can some people easily stop eating when they are full and others can't, which can lead to obesity? A new study has found one reason may be a newly discovered structural connection between two regions in the brain that appears to be involved in regulating feeding behavior. These regions involve the sense of smell and behavior motivation.The weaker the connection between these two brain regions, the higher a person's Body Mass Index, the scientists report.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:19 EDT

Under stress, an observer is more likely to help the victim than to punish the perpetrator

Being stressed while witnessing injustice may push your brain towards altruism, according to a new study.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:17 EDT

Otters, especially females, use tools to survive a changing world

Sea otters are one of the few animals that use tools to access their food, and a new study has found that individual sea otters that use tools -- most of whom are female -- are able to eat larger prey and reduce tooth damage when their preferred prey becomes depleted.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:11 EDT

Researchers discover new pathway to cancer cell suicide

Chemotherapy kills cancer cells. But the way these cells die appears to be different than previously understood. Researchers have now uncovered a completely new way in which cancer cells die: due to the Schlafen11 gene. 'This is a very unexpected finding. Cancer patients have been treated with chemotherapy for almost a century, but this route to cell death has never been observed before. Where and when this occurs in patients will need to be further investigated. This discovery could ultimately have implications for the treatment of cancer patients.'
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:09 EDT

Researchers wrestle with accuracy of AI technology used to create new drug candidates

Researchers have determined that a protein prediction technology can yield accurate results in the hunt to efficiently find the best possible drug candidates for many conditions.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:06 EDT

Breaking bonds to form bonds: Rethinking the Chemistry of Cations

A team of chemists has achieved a significant breakthrough in the field of chemical synthesis, developing a novel method for manipulating carbon-hydrogen bonds. This groundbreaking discovery provides new insights into the molecular interactions of positively charged carbon atoms. By selectively targeting a specific C--H bond, they open doors to synthetic pathways that were previously closed -- with potential applications in medicine.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:03 EDT

New gene delivery vehicle shows promise for human brain gene therapy

In an important step toward more effective gene therapies for brain diseases, researchers have engineered a gene-delivery vehicle that uses a human protein to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier and deliver a disease-relevant gene to the brain in mice expressing the human protein. Because the vehicle binds to a well-studied protein in the blood-brain barrier, the scientists say it has a good chance at working in patients.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:01 EDT

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