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AI chips could get a sense of time

Artificial neural networks may soon be able to process time-dependent information, such as audio and video data, more efficiently.
Mon, 20 May 2024 15:55:19 EDT

Webb Telescope offers first glimpse of an exoplanet's interior

A surprisingly low amount of methane and a super-sized core hide within the cotton candy -- like planet WASP-107 b.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:40 EDT

Blueprints of self-assembly

Scientists have taken a step closer to replicating nature's processes of self-assembly. The study describes the synthetic construction of a tiny, self-assembled crystal known as a 'pyrochlore,' which bears unique optical properties. The advance provides a steppingstone to the eventual construction of sophisticated, self-assembling devices at the nanoscale -- roughly the size of a single virus.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:28:35 EDT

Robot-phobia could exasperate hotel, restaurant labor shortage

Using more robots to close labor gaps in the hospitality industry may backfire and cause more human workers to quit, according to a new study. The study, involving more than 620 lodging and food service employees, found that 'robot-phobia' -- specifically the fear that robots and technology will take human jobs -- increased workers' job insecurity and stress, leading to greater intentions to leave their jobs. The impact was more pronounced with employees who had real experience working with robotic technology. It also affected managers in addition to frontline workers.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:38 EDT

Expanding on the fundamental principles of liquid movement

We are living in a world surrounded by liquid and flow, and understanding the principles that govern its movement is vital in our high-tech world. Through mathematical modeling and experimentation, researchers have expanded on Tanner's Law -- a law in fluid dynamics that describes how non-volatile liquids move across surfaces -- to cover a wider range of volatile liquids. These findings have the potential to play a role in various liquid-based industries such as electronics cooling.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:27:05 EDT

New AI algorithm may improve autoimmune disease prediction and therapies

A new advanced artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm more accurately model how genes associated with specific autoimmune diseases are expressed and regulated and to identify additional genes of risk. The method outperforms existing methodologies and identified 26% more novel gene and trait associations.
Mon, 20 May 2024 12:21:11 EDT

Ion irradiation offers promise for 2D material probing

Two-dimensional materials such as graphene promise to form the basis of incredibly small and fast technologies, but this requires a detailed understanding of their electronic properties. New research demonstrates that fast electronic processes can be probed by irradiating the materials with ions first.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:36 EDT

Physicists propose path to faster, more flexible robots

Physicists revealed a microscopic phenomenon that could greatly improve the performance of soft devices, such as agile flexible robots or microscopic capsules for drug delivery.
Fri, 17 May 2024 16:41:28 EDT

Can we revolutionize the chemical industry and create a circular economy? Yes, with the help of catalysts

A new commentary paper puts forth a transformative solution to the unsustainable reliance on fossil resources by the chemical industry: catalysis to leverage sustainable waste resources, ushering the industry from a linear to a circular economy.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:59 EDT

Diamond glitter: A play of colors with artificial DNA crystals

Using DNA origami, researchers have built a diamond lattice with a periodicity of hundreds of nanometers -- a new approach for manufacturing semiconductors for visible light.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:36 EDT

New AI tool to help beat brain tumors

A new AI tool to more quickly and accurately classify brain tumors has been developed.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:27 EDT

Deep-sea sponge's 'zero-energy' flow control could inspire new energy efficient designs

The deep-sea Venus flower basket sponge can filter feed using only the faint ambient currents of the ocean depths, no pumping required, new research reveals. This discovery of natural 'zero energy' flow control could help engineers design more efficient chemical reactors, air purification systems, heat exchangers, hydraulic systems, and aerodynamic surfaces.
Fri, 17 May 2024 11:15:18 EDT

A powerful tool speeds success in achieving highly efficient thermoelectric materials

Thermoelectric materials could play an important role in the clean energy transition, as they can produce electricity from sources of heat that would otherwise go to waste. Researchers report a new approach to efficiently predict when thermoelectric materials will have improved performance in converting heat into electricity.
Thu, 16 May 2024 20:51:55 EDT

Airborne technology brings new hope to map shallow aquifers in Earth's most arid deserts

The new technique will map the top of the aquifer, called the 'water table,' spanning areas as large as hundreds of kilometers using a radar mounted on a high-altitude aircraft. According to the researchers, Desert-SEA will measure the variabilities in the depth of the water table on a large scale, allowing water scientists to assess the sustainability of these aquifers without the limitations associated with in-situ mapping in harsh and inaccessible environments.
Thu, 16 May 2024 20:51:52 EDT

Large language models can't effectively recognize users' motivation, but can support behavior change for those ready to act

Large language model-based chatbots can't effectively recognize users' motivation when they are hesitant about making healthy behavior changes, but they can support those who are committed to take action, say researchers.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:59 EDT

Scientists use generative AI to answer complex questions in physics

Researchers used generative AI to develop a physics-informed technique to classify phase transitions in materials or physical systems that is much more efficient than existing machine-learning approaches.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:30 EDT

Researchers wrestle with accuracy of AI technology used to create new drug candidates

Researchers have determined that a protein prediction technology can yield accurate results in the hunt to efficiently find the best possible drug candidates for many conditions.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:06 EDT

Breaking bonds to form bonds: Rethinking the Chemistry of Cations

A team of chemists has achieved a significant breakthrough in the field of chemical synthesis, developing a novel method for manipulating carbon-hydrogen bonds. This groundbreaking discovery provides new insights into the molecular interactions of positively charged carbon atoms. By selectively targeting a specific C--H bond, they open doors to synthetic pathways that were previously closed -- with potential applications in medicine.
Thu, 16 May 2024 16:05:03 EDT

Spider silk sound system

Researchers have investigated how spiders listen to their environments through webs and found that the webs match the acoustic particle velocity for a wide range of sound frequencies. Playing sound ranging from 1 Hz to 50 kHz for the spiders and measuring the spider silk motion with a laser vibrometer, they found the sound-induced velocity of the silk was the same as the particles in the air surrounding it. This confirmed the mechanism that these spiders use to detect their prey.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:26:33 EDT

Building a better sarcasm detector

Sarcasm is notoriously tricky to convey through text, and the subtle changes in tone that convey sarcasm often confuse computer algorithms as well, limiting virtual assistants and content analysis tools. So researchers have now developed a multimodal algorithm for improved sarcasm detection that examines multiple aspects of audio recordings for increased accuracy. They used two complementary approaches -- sentiment analysis using text and emotion recognition using audio -- for a more complete picture.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:26:28 EDT

To optimize guide-dog robots, first listen to the visually impaired

What features does a robotic guide dog need? Ask the blind, say researchers. A new study identifies how to develop robot guide dogs with insights from guide dog users and trainers.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:26:23 EDT

More efficient bioethanol production might be possible using persimmon tannin to help yeast thrive

Researchers have found that persimmon tannin, known for its antioxidant properties, improves the growth of yeast in the presence of ethanol.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:26:16 EDT

Wind farms can offset their emissions within two years

After spinning for under two years, a wind farm can offset the carbon emissions generated across its entire 30-year lifespan, when compared to thermal power plants.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:26:08 EDT

Automated news video production is better with a human touch

AI-generated videos for short messages are only as well received as manually created ones if they are edited by humans.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:26:02 EDT

Shedding light on perovskite hydrides using a new deposition technique

Perovskite hydrides are promising materials for various emerging energy technologies, but measuring their intrinsic hydride-ion conductivity is difficult. In a recent study, researchers address this issue using a novel laser deposition technique in an H-radical atmosphere. Using this approach, they grew thin-film single crystals of two different perovskite hydrides and characterized their hydride-ion conductivity. These efforts will bolster research on hydrogen-related materials.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:25:50 EDT

'Forever chemicals' found to rain down on all five Great Lakes

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances, also known as PFAS or 'forever chemicals,' have become persistent pollutants in the air, water and soil. Because they are so stable, they can be transported throughout the water cycle, making their way into drinking water sources and precipitation. Precipitation introduces similar amounts of PFAS into each of the Great Lakes; however, the lakes eliminate the chemicals at different rates.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:25:47 EDT

Bioengineered enzyme creates natural vanillin from plants in one step

Vanilla, the most widely used flavoring compound in confectionaries and cosmetics, gets its sweet flavor and aroma from the chemical compound -- 'vanillin'. However, the large-scale production of natural vanillin is impeded by the lack of microbial processes and enzymes which can commercially generate vanillin. Now, researchers have genetically engineered a novel enzyme which can convert ferulic acid from plant waste into vanillin in a one-step sustainable process.
Thu, 16 May 2024 12:20:33 EDT

Jet-propelled sea creatures could improve ocean robotics

Scientists have discovered that colonies of gelatinous sea animals swim through the ocean in giant corkscrew shapes using coordinated jet propulsion, an unusual kind of locomotion that could inspire new designs for efficient underwater vehicles.
Wed, 15 May 2024 22:51:01 EDT

What is the carbon footprint of a house in Japan?

Researchers conducted a comprehensive analysis on the carbon footprint of constructing a wooden house in Japan. The team found that the estimated carbon footprint of a house in Japan is 38 tons of CO2, with the largest share coming from the electric power sector at 32% of all emissions. Other sectors included were pig iron production at 12% of total emissions; cement, road freight transport, and private power generation each covering 7%.
Wed, 15 May 2024 22:50:53 EDT

Carbon-capture batteries developed to store renewable energy, help climate

Researchers are developing battery technologies to fight climate change in two ways, by expanding the use of renewable energy and capturing airborne carbon dioxide. Researchers recently created and tested two different formulations for batteries that store renewable energy; when the energy is later used, an electrochemical reaction converts industrial carbon dioxide emissions into a solid form that has the potential to be used in other products.
Wed, 15 May 2024 16:43:30 EDT

Hubble views the dawn of a sun-like star

Looking like a glittering cosmic geode, a trio of dazzling stars blaze from the hollowed-out cavity of a reflection nebula in a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The triple-star system is made up of the variable star HP Tau, HP Tau G2, and HP Tau G3. HP Tau is known as a T Tauri star, a type of young variable star that hasn't begun nuclear fusion yet but is beginning to evolve into a hydrogen-fueled star similar to our Sun.
Wed, 15 May 2024 16:43:22 EDT

Robotic 'SuperLimbs' could help moonwalkers recover from falls

SuperLimbs, a system of wearable robotic limbs, can physically support an astronaut and lift them back on their feet after a fall, helping them conserve energy for other essential tasks.
Wed, 15 May 2024 16:43:12 EDT

Copper can't be mined fast enough to electrify the US

Copper cannot be mined quickly enough to keep up with current U.S. policy guidelines to transition the country's electricity and vehicle infrastructure to renewable energy, according to a new study.
Wed, 15 May 2024 16:43:09 EDT

What fire ants can teach us about making better, self-healing materials

Fire ants form rafts to survive flooding, but how do those bonds work? And what can we learn from them? A professor is researching those questions to expand our knowledge of materials science.
Wed, 15 May 2024 16:43:03 EDT

Making batteries takes a lot of lithium: Some could come from gas well wastewater

A new analysis suggests that if it could be extracted with complete efficiency, lithium from the wastewater of Marcellus shale gas wells could supply up to 40% of the country's demand.
Wed, 15 May 2024 16:43:01 EDT

Wavefunction matching for solving quantum many-body problems

Strongly interacting systems play an important role in quantum physics and quantum chemistry. Stochastic methods such as Monte Carlo simulations are a proven method for investigating such systems. However, these methods reach their limits when so-called sign oscillations occur. This problem has now been solved using the new method of wavefunction matching.
Wed, 15 May 2024 16:42:52 EDT

Bluetooth tracking devices provide new look into care home quality

Wearable Bluetooth devices can shed light on the care that residents of care homes are receiving and which residents are most in need of social contact, according to a new study.
Wed, 15 May 2024 16:42:27 EDT

Animal brain inspired AI game changer for autonomous robots

A team of researchers has developed a drone that flies autonomously using neuromorphic image processing and control based on the workings of animal brains. Animal brains use less data and energy compared to current deep neural networks running on GPUs (graphic chips). Neuromorphic processors are therefore very suitable for small drones because they don't need heavy and large hardware and batteries. The results are extraordinary: during flight the drone's deep neural network processes data up to 64 times faster and consumes three times less energy than when running on a GPU. Further developments of this technology may enable the leap for drones to become as small, agile, and smart as flying insects or birds.
Wed, 15 May 2024 16:42:07 EDT

Using AI to improve building energy use and comfort

Researchers have developed a new method that can lead to significant energy savings in buildings. The team identified 28 major heat loss regions in a multi-unit residential building with the most severe ones being at wall intersections and around windows. A potential energy savings of 25 per cent is expected if 70 per cent of the discovered regions are fixed.
Wed, 15 May 2024 12:28:54 EDT

Studying bubbles can lead to more efficient biofuel motors

By studying how bubbles form in a drop of biodiesel, researchers can help future engines get the most energy out of the fuel.
Wed, 15 May 2024 12:28:44 EDT

Detection of an Earth-sized exoplanet orbiting the ultracool dwarf star SPECULOOS-3

Astronomers have just discovered a new Earth-sized exoplanet around SPECULOOS-3, an 'ultracool dwarf' star as small as Jupiter, twice as cold as our Sun, and located 55 light-years from Earth. After the famous TRAPPIST-1, SPECULOOS 3 is the second planetary system discovered around this type of star.
Wed, 15 May 2024 12:28:31 EDT

Much more than a world first image of radioactive cesium atoms

Thirteen years after the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a breakthrough in analysis has permitted a world first: direct imaging of radioactive cesium (Cs) atoms in environmental samples.
Wed, 15 May 2024 12:28:09 EDT

Green concrete recycling twice the coal ash is built to last

New modelling reveals that low-carbon concrete can recycle double the amount of coal ash compared to current standards, halve the amount of cement required and perform exceptionally well over time.
Wed, 15 May 2024 12:28:04 EDT

Robots' and prosthetic hands' sense of touch could be as fast as humans

Research could pave the way for a prosthetic hand and robot to be able to feel touch like a human hand. The technology could also be used to help restore lost functionality to patients after a stroke.
Wed, 15 May 2024 12:27:40 EDT

Researchers use artificial intelligence to boost image quality of metalens camera

Researchers have leveraged deep learning techniques to enhance the image quality of a metalens camera. The new approach uses artificial intelligence to turn low-quality images into high-quality ones, which could make these cameras viable for a multitude of imaging tasks including intricate microscopy applications and mobile devices.
Wed, 15 May 2024 12:27:15 EDT

A simple quantum internet with significant possibilities

It's one thing to dream up a quantum internet that could send hacker-proof information around the world via photons superimposed in different quantum states. It's quite another to physically show it's possible. That's exactly what physicists have done, using existing Boston-area telecommunication fiber, in a demonstration of the world's longest fiber distance between two quantum memory nodes to date.
Wed, 15 May 2024 12:27:12 EDT

Next-generation sustainable electronics are doped with air

Semiconductors are the foundation of all modern electronics. Now, researchers have developed a new method where organic semiconductors can become more conductive with the help of air as a dopant. The study is a significant step towards future cheap and sustainable organic semiconductors.
Wed, 15 May 2024 12:26:54 EDT

Bio-based resins could offer recyclable future for 3D printing

A new type of recyclable resin, made from biosourced materials, has been designed for use in 3D printing applications.
Wed, 15 May 2024 12:26:51 EDT

Promising new development in solar cell technology

Researchers who contributed to the development of record-breaking solar cells a few years ago, expanded their invention. The self-assembled monolayers can now be applied not only in inverted but also in regular structure perovskite solar cells.
Wed, 15 May 2024 12:26:42 EDT

Scientists generate heat over 1,000 degrees Celsius with solar power instead of fossil fuel

Instead of burning fossil fuels to smelt steel and cook cement, researchers in Switzerland want to use heat from the sun. The proof-of-concept study uses synthetic quartz to trap solar energy at temperatures over 1,000 C (1,832 F), demonstrating the method's potential role in providing clean energy for carbon-intensive industries.
Wed, 15 May 2024 12:20:39 EDT

The case for sharing carbon storage risk

Even the most optimistic projections for the rapid build-out of solar, wind, and other low-carbon resources acknowledge that coal, natural gas, and other fossil fuels will dominate the world's energy mix for decades to come. If the vast greenhouse gas emissions from burning these fossil fuels continue to enter the planet's atmosphere, global warming will not be limited to sustainable levels. The capture and geologic sequestration of carbon emissions (CCS) offer a promising solution to the world's carbon conundrum.
Tue, 14 May 2024 21:34:12 EDT

Tech can't replace human coaches in obesity treatment

Technology alone can't replace the human touch to produce meaningful weight loss in obesity treatment, reports a new study. Giving people technology alone for the initial phase of obesity treatment produces unacceptably worse weight loss than giving them treatment that combines technology with a human coach. The need for low cost but effective obesity treatments delivered by technology has become urgent as the ongoing obesity epidemic exacerbates burgeoning health care costs. Researchers are studying why how to make tech approximate human coaches.
Tue, 14 May 2024 18:35:13 EDT

Counterfeit coins can be detected more easily thanks to a novel approach

Researchers present a novel framework that uses image-mining techniques and machine learning algorithms to identify flaws in counterfeit coins. The researchers' framework uses fuzzy association rules mining to find patterns that are similar but 'fuzzy,' i.e., not clear enough to be exact copies. However, the framework will eventually arrive at a certain range of results where positive matches be confidently extract frequent patterns from the images. These patterns capture relationships among the blobs' attributes, such as color, texture, shape and size. The patterns help researchers to better understand the images and tell whether a coin is real or fake.
Tue, 14 May 2024 18:35:05 EDT

Scientists develop an affordable sensor for lead contamination

A new system could enable simple, low-cost detectors for monitoring water for lead contamination, and potentially other heavy metals as well.
Tue, 14 May 2024 18:35:02 EDT

Simulating diffusion using 'kinosons' and machine learning

Researchers have recast diffusion in multicomponent alloys as a sum of individual contributions, called 'kinosons.' Using machine learning to compute the statistical distribution of the individual contributions, they were able to model the alloy and calculate its diffusivity orders of magnitude more efficiently than computing whole trajectories.
Tue, 14 May 2024 18:34:51 EDT

Petroleum, chlorine mix could yield harmful byproducts

A new study shows that chlorine mixed with petroleum in water can potentially produce inadvertent byproducts harmful to human health.
Tue, 14 May 2024 18:34:48 EDT

Virtual reality becomes more engaging when designers use cinematic tools

Cinematography techniques can significantly increase user engagement with virtual environments and, in particular, the aesthetic appeal of what users see in virtual reality.
Tue, 14 May 2024 14:15:01 EDT

Metalens expands Its reach from light to sound

Engineers achieve a wide field-of-hearing acoustic metalens free from aberrations.
Tue, 14 May 2024 14:14:56 EDT

Scientists create an 'optical conveyor belt' for quasiparticles

Using interference between two lasers, a research group has created an 'optical conveyor belt' that can move polaritons -- a type of light-matter hybrid particle -- in semiconductor-based microcavities. This work could lead to the development of new devices with applications in areas such as quantum metrology and quantum information.
Tue, 14 May 2024 14:14:48 EDT

Transforming waste carbon dioxide into high-value chemicals with a cost reduction of about 30%

A team of scientists has developed a novel technique to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) from treated flue gas directly into high-value chemicals and fuels. This innovation sidesteps the conventional approach of using high-purity CO2 for electrochemical reduction processes, achieving significant cost savings of about 30%.
Tue, 14 May 2024 14:14:45 EDT

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