Boiled bubbles jump to carry more heat
The topic of water and the way it can move producing water droplets that leap -- propelled by surface tension -- and frost that jumps -- by way of electrostatics -- is a central focus of a group of scientists. Having incorporated the two phases of liquid and solid in the first two volumes of their research, their third volume investigates a third phase, with boiling water.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 17:02:57 EST
10 billion year, 50,000 light-year journey to black hole
A star near the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy originated outside of the Galaxy according to a new study. This is the first time a star of extragalactic origin has been found in the vicinity of the super massive black hole.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:52:19 EST
New theory unites Einstein's gravity with quantum mechanics
The prevailing assumption has been that Einstein's theory of gravity must be modified, or 'quantized', in order to fit within quantum theory. This is the approach of two leading candidates for a quantum theory of gravity, string theory and loop quantum gravity. But a new theory challenges that consensus and takes an alternative approach by suggesting that spacetime may be classical -- that is, not governed by quantum theory at all.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:56 EST
'Doughnut' beams help physicists see incredibly small objects
A new laser-based technique can create images of structures too tiny to view with traditional microscopes, and without damaging them. The approach could help scientists inspect nanoelectronics, including the semiconductors in computer chips.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:23 EST
Dark galactic region nicknamed 'The Brick' explained with Webb telescope findings
Using the James Webb Space Telescope, astronomers spot unexpected source of carbon monoxide ice at galactic region surprisingly devoid of stars.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:12 EST
Mathematics supporting fresh theoretical approach in oncology
Mathematics, histopathology and genomics converge to confirm that the most aggressive clear cell renal cell carcinomas display low levels of intratumour heterogeneity, i.e. they contain fewer distinct cell types. The study supports the hypothesis that it would be advisable to apply therapeutic strategies to maintain high levels of cellular heterogeneity within the tumour in order to slow down the evolution of the cancer and improve human survival.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:04 EST
Researchers decode aqueous amino acid's potential for direct air capture of CO2
Scientists have made a significant stride toward understanding a viable process for direct air capture, or DAC, of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This DAC process is in early development with the aim of achieving negative emissions, where the amount of carbon dioxide removed from the envelope of gases surrounding Earth exceeds the amount emitted.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:51:02 EST
New technique efficiently offers insight into gene regulation
Researchers have developed a new technique called MAbID. This allows them to simultaneously study different mechanisms of gene regulation, which plays a major role in development and disease. MAbID offers new insights into how these mechanisms work together or against each other.
Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:50:32 EST
A color-based sensor to emulate skin's sensitivity
In a step toward more autonomous soft robots and wearable technologies, researchers have created a device that uses color to simultaneously sense multiple mechanical and temperature stimuli.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:32:02 EST
Ghostlike dusty galaxy reappears in James Webb Space Telescope image
Astronomers studying images from the James Webb Space Telescope have identified an object as a 'dusty star-forming galaxy' from nearly 1 billion years after the Big Bang. They have also discovered more than a dozen additional candidates, suggesting these galaxies might be three to 10 times as common as expected. If that conclusion is confirmed, it suggests the early universe was much dustier than previously thought.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 17:31:59 EST
Researchers have taught an algorithm to 'taste'
Incorporating human tastes into artificial intelligence makes it easier for wine buyers thirsting for the right wine. Researchers have shown that AI can accurately predict individual wine preferences. The researchers expect that nourishing machines with human sensory experiences will continue to grow.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:25 EST
One of the largest magnetic storms in history quantified: Aurorae covered much of the night sky from the Tropics to the Polar Regions
An international multidisciplinary team consisting of solar physicists, geophysicists, and historians from nine countries analysed observations of an extreme solar-terrestrial storm reported in historical records from February 1872. Their findings confirm that a moderate sunspot group triggered one of the largest magnetic storms ever recorded, almost covering the entire night sky with colourful aurorae in both hemispheres. If such an extreme storm occurred today, it would severely disrupt modern technological infrastructure. Their study emphasizes the importance of looking at historical records in light of modern scientific knowledge.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:14 EST
Photonic chip that 'fits together like Lego' opens door to semiconductor industry
A new semiconductor architecture integrates traditional electronics with photonic, or light, components could have application in advanced radar, satellites, wireless networks and 6G telecommunications. And it provides a pathway for a local semiconductor industry.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:08 EST
Meteorites likely source of nitrogen for early Earth
Micrometeorites originating from icy celestial bodies in the outer Solar System may be responsible for transporting nitrogen to the near-Earth region in the early days of our solar system.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:37:06 EST
PicoRuler: Molecular rulers for high-resolution microscopy
A team presents a groundbreaking advance for the world of high-resolution fluorescence microscopy: The innovative method enables researchers for the first time to use biomolecules as molecular rulers to calibrate the latest super-resolution microscopy methods, which have a resolution of just a few nanometers.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:55 EST
Harvesting more solar energy with supercrystals
Hydrogen is a building block for the energy transition. To obtain it with the help of solar energy, researchers have developed new high-performance nanostructures. The material holds a world record for green hydrogen production with sunlight.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:49 EST
Control over friction, from small to large scales
Friction is hard to predict and control, especially since surfaces that come in contact are rarely perfectly flat. New experiments demonstrate that the amount of friction between two silicon surfaces, even at large scales, is determined by the forming and rupturing of microscopic chemical bonds between them. This makes it possible to control the amount of friction using surface chemistry techniques.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:47 EST
To help autonomous vehicles make moral decisions, researchers ditch the 'trolley problem'
Researchers have developed a new experiment to better understand what people view as moral and immoral decisions related to driving vehicles, with the goal of collecting data to train autonomous vehicles how to make 'good' decisions. The work is designed to capture a more realistic array of moral challenges in traffic than the widely discussed life-and-death scenario inspired by the so-called 'trolley problem.'
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:35 EST
A new possible explanation for the Hubble tension
The universe is expanding. How fast it does so is described by the so-called Hubble-Lemaitre constant. But there is a dispute about how big this constant actually is: Different measurement methods provide contradictory values. This so-called 'Hubble tension' poses a puzzle for cosmologists. Researchers are now proposing a new solution: Using an alternative theory of gravity, the discrepancy in the measured values can be easily explained -- the Hubble tension disappears.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:26 EST
Brainstorming with a bot
Electronic nanomaterials experts have imagined how recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) could aid scientific brainstorming and ideation. To accomplish this, they have developed a chatbot with knowledge in the kinds of science he's been engaged in.
Fri, 01 Dec 2023 12:36:12 EST
Scientists build tiny biological robots from human cells
Scientists have created tiny moving biological robots from human tracheal cells that can encourage the growth of neurons across artificial 'wounds' in the lab. Using patients' own cells could permit growth of Anthrobots that assist healing and regeneration in the future with no nead for immune suppression.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 18:42:49 EST
Discovery of planet too big for its sun throws off solar system formation models
The discovery of a planet that is far too massive for its sun is calling into question what was previously understood about the formation of planets and their solar systems.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 14:54:35 EST
Scientists use A.I.-generated images to map visual functions in the brain
Researchers have demonstrated the use of AI-selected natural images and AI-generated synthetic images as neuroscientific tools for probing the visual processing areas of the brain. The goal is to apply a data-driven approach to understand how vision is organized while potentially removing biases that may arise when looking at responses to a more limited set of researcher-selected images.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 14:54:31 EST
2D material reshapes 3D electronics for AI hardware
Researchers demonstrated monolithic 3D integration of layered 2D material into novel processing hardware for artificial intelligence computing. The new approach provides a material-level solution for fully integrating many functions into a single, small electronic chip -- and paves the way for advanced AI computing.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 14:54:23 EST
Smart microgrids can restore power more efficiently and reliably in an outage
A new AI model that optimizes the use of renewables and other energy sources outperforms traditional power restoration techniques for islanded microgrids, a new paper shows.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 14:54:11 EST
Rocky planets can form in extreme environments
Astronomers have provided the first observation of water and other molecules in the highly irradiated inner, rocky-planet-forming regions of a disk in one of the most extreme environments in our galaxy. These results suggest that the conditions for terrestrial planet formation can occur in a possible broader range of environments than previously thought.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 14:54:08 EST
Unsafe lead levels in school drinking water: new study IDs building risk factors
Civil and environmental engineers have determined the factors that may help identify the schools and daycare centers at greatest risk for elevated levels of lead in drinking water. The most telling characteristic for schools in Massachusetts is building age, with facilities built in the 1960s and 1970s -- nearly a third of the facilities tested -- at the greatest risk for having dangerously high water lead levels.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 14:54:05 EST
Straining memory leads to new computing possibilities
A team of researchers developed a new form of computing memory that is fast, dense, and low-power by strategically straining materials that are as thin as a single layer of atoms.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 12:19:41 EST
Researchers show an old law still holds for quirky quantum materials
Long before researchers discovered the electron and its role in generating electrical current, they knew about electricity and were exploring its potential. One thing they learned early on was that metals were great conductors of both electricity and heat. And in 1853, two scientists showed that those two admirable properties of metals were somehow related: At any given temperature, the ratio of electronic conductivity to thermal conductivity was roughly the same in any metal they tested. This so-called Wiedemann-Franz law has held ever since -- except in quantum materials. Now, a theoretical argument put forth by physicists suggests that the law should, in fact, approximately hold for one type of quantum material, the cuprate superconductors.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:52 EST
Phasing out fossil fuels could save millions of lives
Scientists provide new evidence to motivate rapid fossil fuel phaseout. The science team determined exposure to ambient air pollution and its health impacts using an updated atmospheric composition model, a newly developed relative risk model and recent satellite-based fine particle data. They estimated all-cause and disease-specific mortality and attributed them to emission categories. They show that phasing out fossil fuels is a remarkably effective health-improving and life-saving intervention. About 5 million excess deaths per year globally could potentially be avoided.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:41 EST
Researchers develop novel deep learning-based detection system for autonomous vehicles
Autonomous vehicles require object detection systems to navigate traffic and avoid obstacles on the road. However, current detection methods often suffer from diminished detection capabilities due to bad weather, unstructured roads, or occlusion. Now, a team of researchers has developed a novel Internet-of-Things-enabled deep learning-based end-to-end 3D object detection system with improved detection capabilities even under unfavorable conditions. This study marks a significant step in autonomous vehicle object detection technology.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:33 EST
Progress toward improved vaccines
To ensure that vaccines provide strong and lasting immunization, it is often necessary to supplement the actual vaccine (antigen) with additives that stimulate the immune system: adjuvants. Today, only a few substances have been approved for use as adjuvants. A research team has now introduced a spectrum of potential adjuvants. They started with the immune stimulant ?-glactosyl ceramide (?-GalCer) and synthesized many different variants from a set of four building blocks.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:32:00 EST
Durable plastic pollution easily, cleanly degrades with new catalyst
Found in fishing nets, carpet, clothing, Nylon-6 is a major contributor to plastic pollution, including ocean pollution. Now, chemists have developed a new catalyst that quickly, cleanly and completely breaks down Nylon-6 in a matter of minutes -- without generating harmful byproducts. Even better: The process does not require toxic solvents, expensive materials or extreme conditions, making it practical for everyday applications. In experiments, the new process recovered 99% of the polymer's building blocks, which can then be upcycled into higher-value products.
Thu, 30 Nov 2023 11:30:54 EST
Slippery toilet bowl treatment causes bacteria to slide right off
When entering public restrooms, it's hard not to dwell on what germs previous users have left behind in the toilet bowl. Imagine, instead, a self-cleaning system that doesn't require a brightly colored gel. Researchers have developed a simple, transparent coating that makes surfaces, like porcelain, more water-repellent. They show how this surface treatment effectively prevents bacteria from sticking to the inside of a toilet bowl.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 14:23:43 EST
Blasts to clear World War II munitions could contaminate the ocean
World War II concluded decades ago, but live mines lurking on the ocean floor still pose threats, potentially spewing unexpected geysers or releasing contaminants into the water. Experts conduct controlled explosions to clear underwater munitions, but concerns have arisen over the environmental impacts from these blasts. New results show that the contamination produced by detonation depends on the blast type, with weaker explosions leaving behind more potentially toxic residues.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 14:23:05 EST
An astronomical waltz reveals a sextuplet of planets
Astronomers have found a key new system of six transiting planets orbiting a bright star in a harmonic rhythm. This rare property enabled the team to determine the planetary orbits which initially appeared as an unsolvable riddle.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 11:25:37 EST
Artificial intelligence paves way for new medicines
Researchers have developed an AI model that can predict where a drug molecule can be chemically altered.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 11:25:19 EST
Releasing brakes on biocatalysis
Enzymes from microorganisms can produce hydrogen (H2) under certain conditions, which makes them potential biocatalysts for biobased H2 technologies. In order to make this hydrogen production efficient, researchers are trying to identify and eliminate possible limiting factors. These include formaldehyde, which occurs naturally as a metabolic product in cells and inhibits the particularly efficient [FeFe] hydrogenase.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 11:25:10 EST
What was thought of as noise, points to new type of ultrafast magnetic switching
Researchers discover a new type of ultrafast magnetic switching by investigating fluctuations that normally tend to interfere with experiments as noise.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 11:24:53 EST
Building blocks for life could have formed near new stars and planets
While life on Earth is relatively new, geologically speaking, the ingredients that combined to form it might be much older than once thought. The simplest amino acid, carbamic acid, could have formed alongside stars or planets within interstellar ices. The findings could be used to train deep space instruments like the James Webb Space Telescope to search for prebiotic molecules in distant, star-forming regions of the universe.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 11:24:48 EST
Swapping blood for spit -- for convenient at-home health monitoring
Blood tests are a common, yet often painful, step in health care. But what if we could skip the needles altogether? Saliva and blood contain many of the same biomarkers, and collecting spit is as simple as drooling into a container. Researchers have developed a device that detects glucose and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) biomarkers in saliva with high sensitivity, which could help make at-home health monitoring easier and without a poke.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 11:24:42 EST
Greener solution powers new method for lithium-ion battery recycling
Used lithium-ion batteries from cell phones, laptops and a growing number of electric vehicles are piling up, but options for recycling them remain limited mostly to burning or chemically dissolving shredded batteries. Researchers have improved on approaches that dissolve the battery in a liquid solution in order to reduce the amount of hazardous chemicals used in the process. This simple, efficient and environmentally-friendly solution overcomes the main obstacles presented by previous approaches.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 11:24:22 EST
New astrophysics model sheds light on additional source of long gamma-ray bursts
Cutting-edge computer simulations combined with theoretical calculations are helping astronomers better understand the origin of some of the universe's most energetic and mysterious light shows -- gamma-ray bursts, or GRBs. The new unified model confirms that some long-lasting GRBs are created in the aftermath of cosmic mergers that spawn an infant black hole surrounded by a giant disk of natal material.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 11:24:20 EST
A single Bitcoin transaction could cost as much water as a backyard swimming pool
Cryptocurrency mining uses a significant amount of water amid the global water crisis, and its water demand may grow further. Researchers provides the first comprehensive estimate of Bitcoin's water use. He warns that its sheer scale could impact drinking water if it continues to operate without constraints, especially in countries that are already battling water scarcity, including the U.S.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 11:24:06 EST
Quantum tool opens door to uncharted phenomena
Scientists have developed a new tool for the measurement of entanglement in many-body systems and demonstrated it in experiments. The method enables the study of previously inaccessible physical phenomena and could contribute to a better understanding of quantum materials.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 11:23:58 EST
Astronomers discover disc around star in another galaxy
In a remarkable discovery, astronomers have found a disc around a young star in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a galaxy neighboring ours. It's the first time such a disc, identical to those forming planets in our own Milky Way, has ever been found outside our galaxy. The new observations reveal a massive young star, growing and accreting matter from its surroundings and forming a rotating disc.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 11:23:53 EST
Nearly 400,000 new compounds added to open-access materials database
New technology often calls for new materials -- and with supercomputers and simulations, researchers don't have to wade through inefficient guesswork to invent them from scratch.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 11:23:51 EST
Eye-safe laser technology to diagnose traumatic brain injury
Researchers have designed and developed a novel diagnostic device to detect traumatic brain injury (TBI) by shining a safe laser into the eye.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 11:23:03 EST
Network of robots can successfully monitor pipes using acoustic wave sensors
An inspection design method and procedure by which mobile robots can inspect large pipe structures has been demonstrated with the successful inspection of multiple defects on a three-meter long steel pipe using guided acoustic wave sensors.
Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:39:37 EST
How do you make a robot smarter? Program it to know what it doesn't know
Engineers have come up with a new way to teach robots to know when they don't know. The technique involves quantifying the fuzziness of human language and using that measurement to tell robots when to ask for further directions. Telling a robot to pick up a bowl from a table with only one bowl is fairly clear. But telling a robot to pick up a bowl when there are five bowls on the table generates a much higher degree of uncertainty -- and triggers the robot to ask for clarification.
Tue, 28 Nov 2023 17:28:42 EST
Commitments needed to solve aviation's impact on our climate
Researchers could find no simple solution to limiting non-CO2 emissions from aircraft.
Tue, 28 Nov 2023 13:24:15 EST
The secret life of an electromagnon
Scientists have revealed how lattice vibrations and spins talk to each other in a hybrid excitation known as an electromagnon. To achieve this, they used a unique combination of experiments on an X-ray free electron laser. Understanding this fundamental process at the atomic level opens the door to ultrafast control of magnetism with light.
Tue, 28 Nov 2023 13:24:03 EST
Composition of asteroid Phaethon
Asteroid Phaethon, which is five kilometers in diameter, has been puzzling researchers for a long time. A comet-like tail is visible for a few days when the asteroid passes closest to the Sun during its orbit. However, the tails of comets are usually formed by vaporizing ice and carbon dioxide, which cannot explain this tail. The tail should be visible at Jupiter's distance from the Sun.
Tue, 28 Nov 2023 13:23:59 EST
A gamma-ray pulsar milestone inspires innovative astrophysics and applications
Scientists have announced the discovery of nearly 300 gamma ray pulsars.
Tue, 28 Nov 2023 13:23:34 EST
Solar activity likely to peak next year
Researchers have discovered a new relationship between the Sun's magnetic field and its sunspot cycle, that can help predict when the peak in solar activity will occur. Their work indicates that the maximum intensity of solar cycle 25, the ongoing sunspot cycle, is imminent and likely to occur within a year.
Tue, 28 Nov 2023 13:23:28 EST
Minimalist or maximalist? The life of a microbe a mile underground
Researchers characterize nearly 600 microbial genomes collected from goldmine. The study illuminates 'microbial dark matter' residing below the surface. Microbes divide into two groups: minimalists that have one, specialized job or maximalists that are prepared to use any available resource. Study has implications for how underground activities, like mining and carbon storage, could affect or be affected by microbial life. The lifestyle of these 'intraterrestrial' microbes also provides hints to what organisms could be living on other planets.
Tue, 28 Nov 2023 13:23:26 EST
Researchers engineer a material that can perform different tasks depending on temperature
Researchers report that they have developed a new composite material designed to change behaviors depending on temperature in order to perform specific tasks. These materials are poised to be part of the next generation of autonomous robotics that will interact with the environment.
Tue, 28 Nov 2023 13:23:08 EST
Nextgen computing: Hard-to-move quasiparticles glide up pyramid edges
A new kind of 'wire' for moving excitons could help enable a new class of devices, perhaps including room temperature quantum computers.
Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:14:21 EST
Unlocking the secrets of cells, with AI
Researchers have developed a new program that provides a more accurate understanding of the peptide sequences in cells. The researchers use machine learning to help analyze the makeup of unfamiliar cells, which could lead to more personalized medicine in the treatment of cancer and other serious diseases.
Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:14:18 EST
Compact accelerator technology achieves major energy milestone
Researchers have demonstrated a compact particle accelerator less than 20 meters long that produces an electron beam with an energy of 10 billion electron volts (10 GeV). There are only two other accelerators currently operating in the U.S. that can reach such high electron energies, but both are approximately 3 kilometers long. This type of accelerator is called a wakefield laser accelerator.
Mon, 27 Nov 2023 20:03:52 EST